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高考英语语法专项练习之动词

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2021年01月19日

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  我们都知道,英语语法是英语体系的钢筋铁骨,所有的口语及书面表达都需要依附英语语法而成,其中高考时英语语法更是贯穿了整张卷面。下面是小编整理的关于高考英语语法专项练习之动词的资料,希望对你有所帮助。

  

 

  [深化认知]

  一、常用动词短语

  1.agree短语

  agree with  同意某人的意见,(气候、食物等)适合,与……相符

  agree on 对……取得一致意见

  agree to 同意(建议、看法、意见等)

  agree about 对……有相同的看法

  2.bring短语

  bring up 提出,养育,呕吐

  bring down 降低,打倒

  bring out 带来,促使,引起

  bring about 引起,导致

  3.break短语

  break up 打碎,结束,解散,垮掉

  break down 分解,发生故障,失败,毁掉,制服,崩溃

  break out (战争、火灾等)爆发

  4.come短语

  come up with 提出,想出

  come across 偶遇

  come back 回来,恢复,想起来

  come over 过来,顺便来访

  come about 发生

  come into 进入,得到,继承

  come out with 说出,发表,出版

  come to 总计,清醒过来

  5.call短语

  call out 唤起,出动,大声叫唤

  call on 拜访,号召

  call for 要求,需要

  call off 取消

  6.carry短语

  carry out 实施,执行

  carry on 继续

  carry away 拿走,使入迷

  carry off 夺走,使丧命

  7.do短语

  do away with 废除

  do without 没有……也行

  do with 处理,处置,对付

  8.drop短语

  drop out 辍学,掉队

  drop by 顺便来访

  drop in (on/at) 顺便拜访(某人/某地)

  9.get短语

  get over 克服

  get away with 侥幸成功,侥幸逃脱

  get through 接通(电话),完成(工作),通过

  (考试)

  get across 理解,度过

  get rid of 除掉,去掉

  get along with 与……相处,取得进展

  get down to 开始(做)某事

  get along 进展

  get on 上车,进展,相处融洽

  get to 到达

  get in 收割

  get away 拿走,逃脱,逃离,休假

  get off 动身,从……下来,脱下

  get back 回来,恢复,取回

  get into 进入,学会,习惯于

  get down 下来,取下,咽下,记下,使紧张不安

  10.give短语

  give away 赠送,给予,背弃,泄露,分发

  give up 放弃,辞去

  give off 释放,发出,放出(烟、光、热等)

  give out 用完,耗尽,分发,发放

  give in 屈服,呈交

  11.go短语

  go by 走过,经过,(时间)消逝,过去

  go away 走开,离去

  go out 熄灭,出去

  go over 复习,过一遍,仔细检查,审阅

  go on 发生,进行,继续

  go up 上升,上涨,增长,攀登

  go after 追求,追赶

  go through 通过,浏览

  12.hold短语

  hold up 举起,阻止,延误

  hold on 等一等,不要挂断电话

  hold off 拖延,不接近

  hold out 伸出,坚持下去,维持

  hold back 退缩,踌躇,阻挡,控制住

  13.keep短语

  keep back 后退,阻止,抑制,扣留(钱)

  keep down 控制,镇压

  keep off 不靠近,不提及,推迟

  keep out 不得入内

  keep up 保持,坚持,使(情绪等)不低落

  keep up with 跟上,赶上

  keep away 防范,不接近

  keep with 陪伴

  keep an eye on 照看,留意,密切注意

  14.leave短语

  leave out 省去,遗漏,忽视,不考虑

  leave off 停止

  leave behind 遗留,忘记带走

  leave alone 不管,不理会

  15.look短语

  look about 环顾

  look up 仰望,查阅

  look at 看

  look into 调查

  look up to 尊重

  look down upon 轻视,看不起

  look forward to 期盼

  look out 当心,小心

  look after 照顾

  look upon 看待,把……看作

  look down 俯视,往下看

  look through 浏览,看穿

  look over 检查,查看

  16.make短语

  be made of 由……制成(看出原材料)

  be made from 由……制成(看不出原材料)

  make out 分辨出,勉强认出,理解

  make up 化妆,打扮,和解,配置,编造,虚构,构成,组成

  make sense 有意义,有道理,讲得通

  make the best/most of 充分利用

  17.put短语

  put off 推迟

  put down 镇压,记下

  put on 穿上,上演

  put up 挂起,张贴,举起,建立

  put away 储存

  put up with 忍受

  put together 把……放在一起,组合

  18.run短语

  run out 耗尽

  run out of 用完,用光

  run after 追逐

  run across 偶然遇到

  run for 竞选

  run over 碾过

  run into 偶然遇到,与……相撞

  19.set短语

  set about doing sth. 着手/开始做某事

  set aside 留出

  set down 放下,记下,开始认真对待

  set off 出发,启程,引起爆炸,激起

  set out to do sth. 开始做某事,着手做某事

  set up 建立,开办,竖起,支起

  20.take短语

  take off (飞机)起飞,脱掉,突然成名

  take out 拿出,取出

  take away 拿走

  take in 吸收,接纳,理解,欺骗

  take down 取下来,拆毁,拆卸

  take up 接受,从事,开始,占去(时间、空间、地位等)

  take after 与某人相像

  take on 呈现,雇用,承担

  21.turn短语

  turn over 移交

  turn on 打开,取决于

  turn off 关掉

  turn down 关小,拒绝

  turn out 结果是,培养出,生产

  turn to 转向,向……求助

  turn in 上交

  turn around 转身,转过来

  turn up 调大,出现

  二、常用动词的固定搭配

  account for 解释,占(比例)

  adapt to 适应

  come straight to the point谈正题,开门见山

  come to an end 结束

  declare war on 宣战

  exchange ...for ... 用……交换……

  make one's fortune 发财

  keep in touch with 与……保持联系

  keep in shape        保持健康

  rise to one's feet 站起来

  take possession of      占有,拥有

  cause damage to 对……造成损害

  go in for 爱好,参加,从事

  put up with 容忍

  hold one's breath 屏住呼吸

  take a deep breath 深呼吸

  take advantage of 利用,趁……之机

  get in/lose touch with 与……取得/失去联系

  get hold of 掌握,抓住,得到

  give sb. support 给某人支持

  put ...into practice 将……付诸行动

  work out 制定出,计算出

  [典题在线]

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2015·广东高考语法填空)He sold or exchanged some of the milk in the towns nearby for other food and made cheese and butter for the family with what was left.

  2.(2014·辽宁高考语法填空)OK. Don't laugh at me. I may look funny.

  3.(2014·广东高考语法填空)I didn't understand why this would happen and my credit card had already been charged for the reservation.

  4.(2014·福建高考单选)As a grassroots singer, she reads everything she can get hold of concerning music, and takes every opportunity to improve herself.

  5.(2016·秦皇岛一模)Personally, I agree with the second group of people.

  6.(2016·开封一模)This evidence shows that ignoring the traffic regulations will bring about traffic accidents.

  7.(2016·长春一模)It is often the husband who gives in first when a quarrel breaks out between the young couple.

  8.(2016·济南一模)That's good. I like to keep in shape, so I play a lot of sports.

  9.(2016·天津一模)I looked up and there on the headland was a little kid.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.(2016·南昌一模)I agree with most of what you said, but I don't agree on everything. on→with

  2.(2016·大连一模)A quick search on the Internet will bring about dozens of online companies that allow you to register your home for free. about→up

  3.(2016·聊城一模)They succeeded in escaping from the burning building by breaking out the door. out→down

  4.(2016·渭南一模)I was amazed that he'd come up this sweet idea. up后加with

  5.(2016·阳泉一模)They call for people and the government to take measures to fight against the air pollution. for→on

  6.(2016·绵阳一模)This proves that as long as we have a strong will, we'll be able to get down any difficulty. down→over

  7.(2016·邯郸一模)We will never give off, whatever they might do or say about our plan. off→in

  8.(2016·佳木斯一模)The old man went down all kinds of sufferings during the war. down→through

  9.Women are playing more and more important part in society — they hold back half the sky. back→up

  介词(短语)

  [深化认知]

  一、常见介词的用法

  1.on+名词或动名词,表示“一……就……”

  On his arrival he went straight to the counter and spoke to the clerk in uniform behind it.

  一到饭店,他就径直往柜台走去,并与柜台后面穿制服的店员说话。

  2.to与情感名词连用,表示“某种行为后产生的感觉”, to one's delight/surprise/horror/sorrow/joy/regret/...

  Much to our delight and satisfaction, the local government is trying to take strong measures to keep the price under control.

  令我们高兴和满意的是,当地政府正在采取强有力措施来控制物价。

  3.by

  (1)含有“到……的程度”的意思。

  This one is shorter than the other by three inches.

  这一个比那一个短三英寸。

  (2)表示买卖东西所用以计算的数或量,或付酬所用以计算的时间。

  Milk is sold by the pint, butter by the pound, and eggs by the dozen.

  牛奶论品脱卖,黄油论磅卖,蛋类论打卖。

  (3)表示“按照……”或“根据……”的意思。

  By my watch, the time is half past eleven.

  按我的表,现在是十一点半。

  4.of与抽象名词连用,表示的意义相当于对应的形容词

  of+great/much+抽象名词 = very+形容词

  of+no+抽象名词 = not+形容词

  (2014·四川高考写作)Besides, it is normal for me to feel nervous, because the exam is of great importance to me.

  况且,我感到紧张是正常的,因为这次考试对我来说非常重要。

  5.beyond

  (1)表示“(时间)过了,比……晚,迟于”。

  It's beyond midnight now. Is he still watching the football match?

  现在已经过了午夜了。他还在看足球赛吗?

  (2)表示“(位置)在……那一边,超出……;为……所不及,超出……的范围”。

  Beyond the river stood a power station.

  过了这条河就是一个发电站。

  Everybody was touched beyond words after they heard her moving story.

  听了她感人的故事,大家都被感动得无以言表。

  6.against

  (1)表示“逆,顶着;靠着,倚靠;碰着,撞击(表示方向或位置)”。

  Birds fly slowly against the wind.

  鸟逆风飞得很慢。

  He stood with his back against the wall.

  他背靠墙站着。

  The cold rain beat against the window.

  冷雨敲窗。

  (2)表示“反对(与for意义相反);违背”。

  Others are against the idea, saying that learning English is useless and is a waste of energy.

  其他人反对这个观点,他们说学英语没用,并且浪费精力。

  (3)表示“防备,准备”。

  Some animals store food against the winter.

  有些动物为过冬储备食物。

  They have got prepared against flood.

  他们已经做好了防洪准备。

  (4)表示“衬托,相映”。

  Flowers look better against green leaves.

  好花还需绿叶衬。

  7.with

  (表示关系)和……在一起;(表示状态)具有,带有;(表示方式)用……,凭借……;(表示对象)关于……;(表示伴随)随着;(表示原因)由于,因为

  The dictionary is what I want, but I don't have enough money with me.

  这本词典是我想要的东西,但我身上没带那么多钱。

  With the vital exam drawing near, I felt so nervous that I even couldn't eat or sleep, thus making me very sleepy in class.

  随着这场重要考试日益临近,我感到如此紧张以至于吃不下睡不着,因此课堂上无精打采。

  8.through

  (表示位置)穿过;(表示时间)整个……;(表示手段、媒介)依据,经由

  Graduation is a good time to thank those who have helped you through the tough years.

  毕业是一个向那些在艰难岁月里帮助过你的人表示感谢的好机会。

  9.off

  (表示位置)在……的外面,在……的沿海;(表示方向)偏离;从……离开

  The Well Hotel stands in a quiet place off the main road at the far end of the lake.

  Well Hotel坐落于湖尽头的大路附近一个非常安静的地方。

  二、介词短语

  介词的固定搭配考查有两种:一是考查固定搭配中的介词;二是考查介词短语。常用的介词短语的固定搭配有:

  介词 构成的短语及意义 in in the meanwhile     同时

  in the way 阻挡

  in time 及时;最终

  in detail 详细地

  in favour of 同意

  in case 以免;万一

  in return 作为回报

  in exchange for 用以交换……in terms of 就……而言

  in need of 需要

  in search of 寻找

  in the form of 以……形式

  in the direction of 朝……方向

  in honor of 为纪念

  in response to 作为对……的回应

  in sight 看得见

  in turn 依次

  in particular 尤其,特别

  in charge 负责,掌管 for be praised for        因为……受到表扬

  for life 终生

  for the benefit of 为了……的利益

  as for 就……而论;关于

  be trained for 被训练为……

  for lack of 由于缺乏…… on on behalf of       代表

  on the contrary 相反

  on condition that ... 以……作为条件

  on account of 因为,由于

  on watch 值班;监视 with have an appointment with  与……有约会

  with regard to 关于 above above average        在平均数以上

  above all 首先;最重要的是 by by chance     偶然;碰巧

  by name 用名字

  by means of 通过……方法 from apart from     除……之外

  far from 远非 against warn sb. against doing sth. 警告某人不要做某事 out of out of control       失去控制

  out of place 不在合适的位置;不适当的

  out of one's reach 某人够不着的地方

  out of the question 不可能

  out of question 毫无疑问

  out of sight 看不见

  out of order 发生故障

  [典题在线]

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)For those who fly to Guilin, it's only an hour away by car and offers all the scenery of the better­known city.

  2.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough to cool the house during the hot day; at the same time, they warm up again for the night.

  3.(2015·广东高考语法填空)Then the Johnsons had to make a living without a cow.

  4.(2015·福建高考单选)A common memory they all have of their school days is the school uniform.

  5.(2015·陕西高考单选)The little pupil took his grandma by the arm and walked her across the street.

  6.(2015·重庆高考单选)Last year was the warmest year on record, with global temperature 0.68 ℃ above the average.

  7.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)When the bus finally came, we all hurried on board. I got a place next to the window, so I had a good view of the sidewalk.

  8.(2014·浙江高考单选)While staying in the village, James unselfishly shared whatever he had with the villagers without asking for anything in return.

  9.(2014·北京高考单选)Jane is in a hurry because the train to the airport leaves in half an hour.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ短文改错)Tony saw a toy on a shop window.on→in

  2.(2015·陕西高考短文改错)My soccer coach retired in last week.去掉in

  3.(2015·四川高考短文改错)Please help with me and give me some advice.去掉with

  4.(2014·四川高考短文改错)If you hear the alarm, stand in line at the door and wait your teacher to lead you outside.wait_后加for

  5.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ短文改错)Nearly five years ago, and with the help by our father, my sister and I planted some cherry tomatoes (圣女果) in our back garden.by→of

  6.(2014·浙江高考短文改错)If we could show concern to others on need, the world would be a better place to live in.on→in

  7.(2016·营口一模)Suddenly it occurred to me that he might have left it in the taxi. So I immediately got touch with the taxi company.got后加in

  8.(2016·烟台一模)I'm afraid physics is completely against me and I have to ask you for help.against→beyond

  对点集训即时巩固·提升知能

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2016·镇江调研)As soon as the project came up at the meeting, it attracted many people's attention.

  2.(2016·海口模拟)It is well known to us all that friendship calls for time and effort.

  3.Second, go outdoors and play team games with your friends as physical exercise is an effective way to get rid of anger.

  4.I am trying to persuade him to give up the attempt.

  5.As time went by,_I still take singing as my hobby.

  6.(2016·昆明质检)The computer game is designed for game lovers, young ones in particular.

  7.Dora has some shortcomings but on the whole she seems like an intelligent, likable person.

  8.(2016·沈阳模拟)As the only child, Jack was in possession of all the belongings after his parents died.

  9.My mother is against my suggestion while my father is in favour of it.

  10.We offered her our congratulations on her passing the driving test.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.There is no doubt that the Internet makes communication easier and helps us keep with the latest information. keep后加up

  2.Pupils should be taught to look up their parents. up后加to

  3.Mary is really good at taking notes in class. She can put off almost every word her teacher says. off→down

  4.(2016·西工大附中第七次适应性训练)If we continue to destroy and waste the natural resources like this, we will run out it sooner or later. out后加of

  5.I am afraid the mountain would break down. The next morning we got up early in order to see the sun rise from the east. from→in

  6.In first sight, it may look like a generous offer, but always read the small print. In→At

  7.(2016·东北三校联考)I'm very interested in the job and I'd like to apply to the position. 第二个to→for

  8.I want to find out a part­time job in the summer. I'm 18 years old and have a good command of English, especially in terms of speaking and listening. 去掉out

  9.These are the happiest girls I've ever seen and I'm the happiest in all! in→of

  10.He is always helping people without expecting anything as return. as→in

  Ⅲ.语法填空

  (2016·东北三省四市联考)It was a city in Hubei Province. On International Children's Day, some orphans (孤儿) from the Wuhan Welfare Institute for Children were taken 1.to the park. An elderly westerner was with them. The children were eager to tell him everything that was going on. They held him 2.by the hand and never hesitated to call him Grandpa. This man was Professor William Dorrity, from Florida, USA. In 2003, 3.when/after Professor Dorrity and his wife retired, they came to Wuhan and started to work 4.as volunteers at the Welfare Institute.

  The Dorritys have been working hard to improve the conditions at the Welfare Institute since they came. They often take children on day trips, 5.bringing (bring) along with them all kinds of food for the kids to enjoy. They recently bought audiphones for four orphans 6.with hearing problems and small tape recorders for three blind children. They also bought a wheelchair for ten­year­old Tan Jun, 7.who suffers from a brain problem. With the 8.arrival (arrive) of spring, the Dorritys took the children for 9.an outing. “We love China and we love children,” Dorrity said, “10.and/so we are happy to do this.”


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