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高中英语语法之助动词(含巩固练习)

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2021年02月04日

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我们都知道,英语语法是英语体系的钢筋铁骨,所有的口语及书面表达都需要依附英语语法而成,其中高考时英语语法更是贯穿了整张卷面。下面是小编整理的关于高中英语语法之助动词(含巩固练习)的资料,内容比较适合用来日常练习,希望对你有所帮助!

一.概念:

助动词是帮助主要动词构成各种时态,语态,语气以及否定或疑问结构的动词.助动词分为时态助动词和结构助动词两种.

二.相关知识点精讲:

1. 助动词be的用法

1) be +现在分词,构成进行时态。例如:

They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。

English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。

2) be +

The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。

English is taught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。

3) be +

a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排。例如:

He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。

We are to teach the freshmen. 我们要教新生。

说明: 这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。

b. 表示命令。例如:

You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。

He is to come to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。

c. 征求意见。例如:

How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他?

Who is to go there? 谁该去那儿呢?

d. 表示相约、商定。例如:

We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨7点在校门口集合。have的用法

1)have +过去分词,构成完成时态。例如:

He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。

By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work.  上月未为止,他们已经完成工作的一半。

2)have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时。例如:

I have been studying English for ten years. 我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。

3)have +been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态。例如:

English has been taught in China for many years. 中国教英语已经多年。助动词do

1)构成一般疑问句。例如:

Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗?

Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗?

2)do + not

I do not want to be criticized.  我不想挨批评。

He doesn't like to study.  他不想学习。

In the past, many students did not know the importance of English.

3)

Don't go there. 不要去那里。 Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。

do,不用did和does。

4)放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气。例如:

Do come to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。

I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。

I do miss you. 我确实想你。

5)用于倒装句。例如:

Never did I hear of such a thing.  我从未听说过这样的事情。

Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English. 进了大学以后,我们才认识到英语的重要性。

never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well等。

6)用作代动词。例如:

---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗?

---- Yes, I do. --是的,喜欢。(do用作代动词,代替like Beijing.)

He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he? 他知道如何开车,对吧?shall和will的用法

shall和will作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时。例如:

I shall study harder at English.  我将更加努力地学习英语。

He will go to Shanghai.  他要去上海。

shall用于第一人称,will 只用于第二、第三人称。现在,尤其是在口语中,will常用于第一人称,但shall只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较:

He shall come. 他必须来。(shall有命令的意味。)

He will come. 他要来。(will只与动词原形构成一般将来时。)5.助动词should, would的用法

1)should无词义,只是shall的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人称。例如:

I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week. 我昨天给他打电话,问他我下周干什么。

比较:"What shall I do next week?" I asked. "我下周干什么?"我问道。 可以说,shall变成间接引语时,变成了should。

2) would也无词义,是will的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称。例如:

He said he would come.  他说他要来。"I will go," he said. 他说:"我要去那儿。"变成间接引语,就成了He said he would come。原来的will变成would,go变成了come.。

短语动词

Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。(turn off是短语动词)

1)动词+副词,如:black out;

2)动词+介词,如:look into;

3)动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词

1.If it is fine tomorrow, we ______ a football match.

a. have b. will have c. has d. shall has

2.When he was at school, he ______ early and take a walk before breakfast.

a. will rise b. shall rise b. should rise would rise

3.In the past 30 years China ______ great advances in the socialist revolution and socialist construction.

a. has made b. have made c. had made d. having made

4.I ______ go to bed until I ______ finished my work.

a. don’t/had b. didn’t/have c. didn’t/had d. don’t/have

5.______ you think he ______ back by dinner time?

a. Do/have come b. Did/will have come c. Does/will come d. Do/will have come

6.He said that he dropped his bag when he ______ for the bus.

a. was runing b. was running c. were running d. is running

7.No sooner ______ he arrived home than he ______ to start on another journey.

a. has/was asked b. have/were asked c. had/is asked d. had/was asked

8.“______ you give me a room for the night?” I asked on arriving at the hotel.

a. Should b. Can c. Might d. May

9.There are nine of them, so ______ get into the car at the same time.

a. they may not at all b. all they may not c. they can’t all d. all they can’t

10.“We didn’t see him at the lecture yesterday.” “He ______ it.”

a. mustn’t attend b. cannot have attended

c. would have not attended d. needn’t have attended

11.“You realize that you were driving at 100 mph, don’t you?”

“No, officer. I ______. This car can’t do more than 80.”

a. didn’t need to be b. may not have been c. couldn’t have been d. needn’t have been

12.he was a good runner so he ______ escape from the police.

a. might b. succeeded to c. would d. was able to

13.If they ______, our plan will fall flat.

a. are co-operating b. had not co-operated c. won’t co-operate d. didn’t co-operate

14.I hoped ______ my letter.

a. her to answer b. that she would answer c. that she answers d. her answering

15.He ______ live in the country than in the city.

a. prefers b. likes to c. had better d. would rather

16.______ to see a film with us today?

a. Did you like b. Would you like c. Will you like d. Have you liked

17.I’m sorry, but I had no alternative. I simply ______ what I did.

a. must do b. had to do c. ought to have done d. have to do

18.“Time is running out,______?”

a. hadn’t we better got start b. hadn’t we better get start

c.hadn’t we better get started d. hadn’t we better not started

19.No one ______ that to his face.

a. dares say b. dares saying c. dare say d. dare to say

20.The students in the classroom ______ not to make so much noise.

a. need b. ought c. must d. dare

21.You ______ last week if you were really serious about your work.

a. ought to come b. ought to be coming c. ought have come d. ought to have come

22.The elephants ought ______ hours ago by the keepers.

a. to be fed b. to feed c. to being fed d. to have been fed

23.“I wonder why they’re late.” “They ______ the train.”

a. can have missed b. could miss c. may have missed d. might miss

24.“Tom graduated from college at a very young age.”

“He ______ have been an outstanding student.”

a. must b. could c. should d. might

25.You ______ the examination again since you had already passed it.

a. needn’t have taken b. didn’t need to take c. needn’t take d. mustn’t take

26.He is really incompetent! The letter ______ yesterday.

a. should be finished typing b. must be finished typing

c.must have finished typing c. should have been finished typing

27.The boy told his father that he would rather ______ an astronaut.

a. become b. to become c. becoming d. became

28.When we reached the station, the train had still not arrived; so we ______.

a. needed not to hurry b. needn’t have hurried

c. need not to have hurried d. didn’t need to hurry

29.Since your roommate is visiting her family this weekend,_____ you like to have dinner with us tonight?

a. will b. won’t c. wouldn’t d. do

30.He was afraid what he had done ______ a disastrous effect on his career.

a. might have b. could be c. have been d. shall be


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