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托福阅读经典加试:蜜蜂的沟通模式

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zhaocongcong

2018年12月17日

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  托福阅读考试中,出现经典加试也是比较常见的现象。那么具体的备考中,我们要侧重来复习一下经典加试的内容。今天小编为大家整理了“蜜蜂的沟通模式”的内容,供大家参考复习。

  Title:蜜蜂的沟通模式

  讲小蜜蜂。分为 honeybee和worker bee。讲了honeybee是怎么寻找蜜源和如何告訴同伴蜜源的位置的。开头先說蜜蜂和 termite白蚁与很多 Species 不同,他們是 social。蜜蜂是一個是由社会分工合作的动物(有題問他們有什么共同點),交流因此就变得很重要(有題)。然后科学家們就开始用他們的聪明才智研究小蜜蜂了。开始以为是honeybee是靠scent交流,然后某德国科学家研究发现 scout 用舞蹈來告訴工蜂蜜源的远近,远的用八字舞,近的用圆圈舞。他因此获得炸药奖。交流的內容靠跳八字舞或者 circle 区别 distance,而不是食物的类别(有題)。原來发现蜜蜂找到窝以后跳舞是指示food type,后来发现more than that。跳舞还指示出了direction and distance。跳舞分两种种 nectar花蜜 dance 另一種 pollen花粉 dance,有一道題問這個的,nectar 是跳圓圈舞,pollen 是跳八字舞。但是一直有科学家怀疑這個說法直到 1989 年,一些科學家为了验证他的理论做了 machine bees 模仿 scout,就是不去有食物处(这里有考題问题器蜜蜂和其他小蜜蜂有什么不同),发现 robot使用這些动作果然可以向工蜂有效传递资讯。采蜜只是跳舞來做一些指示。最后发現了小蜜蜂带回來的资讯和 wind 无关(这里有考题问except 的问题,其他选项是 direction, distance 还有一个忘了)

  Bees

  Flowers provide food for bees. The bees collect tiny grains of pollen and a sweet liquid called nectar from the blossoms they visit. They make honey from the nectar, and use both honey and pollen as food.

  During their food-gathering flights, bees spread pollen from one flower to another, thus pollinating (fertilizing) the plants they visit. This enables the plants to reproduce.

  The honey bee colony

  A typical honey bee colony is made up of one queen, tens of thousands of workers, and a few hundred drones雄峰.

  Honey bees live in hives. The hive is a storage space, such as a hollow空的 tree or a box, which contains a honeycomb蜂窝. The honeycomb is a mass of six-sided compartments隔间 called cells.

  Worker bees build the honeycomb of wax produced by their bodies. The wax oozes渗出 through small pores (holes) in the body and forms tiny white flakes on the outside of the abdomen.

  They also collect a sticky substance bee glue, from certain kinds of trees.

  The body of the honey bee

  A bee has five eyes-three small ones that form a triangle on top of its head, and a large compound eye on each side of its head.

  Honey bees were the first insects known to be able to distinguish colors. Bees have three kinds of color-sensitive cells in their eyes. These visual cells are especially sensitive to blue, yellow, and ultraviolet rays, which humans cannot see.

  The sting of a worker bee is straight, with barbs (hooks) on it. When the bee thrusts the sting into flesh, the barbs hold tight, and the stinger蛰针 pulls out of the bee's body.


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