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托福口语心理学题目解析

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zhaocongcong

2018年08月16日

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  心理学中的reinforcement,分为positive reinforcement和negative reinforcement两种,即增加能够激发个人兴趣的东西和消除自己不喜欢的东西。

  举例说明:

  1. positive(add the pleasure):早起奖励自己好的food,这样就可以让你喜欢早起这种 behavior。

  2. negative(remove the unpleasant behavior),不喜欢早上shower,那么可以改在晚上,这样人也就不会那么讨厌早起了。

  参考范例:

  The lecture tells about two main methods which can be used to reinforce people. It states that reinforcement of behavior means that people strengthen certain acts on purpose by using the positive or negative stimulus. Then the professor shows some examples. Let's suppose that you hate to get up early,but sometimes you have to do so. Then you could choose to encourage yourself to get up early by using either a positive or a negative reinforcement. The positive one is to add the pleasure to your daily life to help you make the decision easier. For example,you can reward yourself with a very nice breakfast if you get up early. A negative one is to remove the unpleasant behavior off your daily routine. For example,If you do not enjoy taking a shower early in the morning, you can take it in the evening instead. Therefore, when you have to get up early in the morning, you might feel better because you have cut things you don't like out of your morning schedule.

  在这道Task6的讲座中,professor通过列举两个实现早起上班的例子来说明reinforcement这种现象。心理学方面的问题在Task 6当中出现的比例还是比较高的,接下来我们再来看一个心理学的例子。

  真题回顾:

  讲课要点:心理学中的奖励机制reward。说奖励机制有两种效果。

  举例说明:

  1. 正的。第一种让这种行为更多的发生。她的女儿Jenny,不爱收拾屋子,他们就给她钱,这本来是她不愿意做的事情,但慢慢地就自觉自愿地多做了。

  2. 反的。第二种导致行为发生少了。又是Jenny,喜欢弹钢琴,他们就奖励她,但是弹得少了,因为觉得弹钢琴变成了一种义务chore,就像收拾屋子。T

  参考范例:

  In the lecture the professor tells about the rewarding strategy in Psychology. He states that reward can influence people's behavior in two ways: positively and negatively. Then the professor goes on to further explain that by taking her daughter — Jenny for an example. Jenny doesn't like cleaning up the room,so he gives her money to encourage her to do that. And gradually,she likes the work and does it more often,which is the positive effect that rewarding has. But on the other hand,something that a person likes to do may become the daily chores because of the rewarding system. For example,Jenny likes to play the piano,but when her parents give her a reward,she,on the contrary,plays less often 'cause she thinks playing the piano,just like cleaning the house, is a kind of chore,that is negative effects that rewarding has.


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