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托福阅读最后的大题怎么做

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zhaocongcong

2019年03月22日

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  事实上,绝大多数同学本身选择的就是这种“饱受偏见”的方法。然而,抛下使用排除法是因为学艺不精这种刻板印象,认清错误选项的设计方式是最快速实用的提高正确率的渠道。

  那么托福阅读最后一题的错误选项都是因为什么而错的呢?

  分类很简单

  过于关注细节的

  存在事实、逻辑关系、形容对象错误的

  光说无凭,我们以TPO51的“Memphis: United Egypt’s First Capital”为例子,看看两种类型的错误选项分别错在何处。

  Equally important for the national administration was the ability to control communications within Egypt. The Nile provided the easiest and quickest artery of communication and the national capital was, again, ideally located in this respect. Recent geological surveys of the Memphis region have revealed much about its topography in ancient times. It appears that the location of Memphis may have been even more advantageous for controlling trade, transport, and communications than was previously appreciated.

  Surveys and drill cores have shown that the level of the Nile floodplain has steadily risen over the last five millenniums. When the floodplain was much lower, as it would have been in predynastic and early dynastic times, the outwash fans (fan-shaped deposits of sediments) of various wadis (stream-beds or channels that carry water only during rainy periods) would have been much more prominent features on the east bank. The fan associated with the Wadi Hof extended a significant way into the Nile floodplain, forming a constriction in the vicinity of Memphis. The valley may have narrowed at this point to a mere three kilometers, making it the ideal place for controlling river traffic.

  Furthermore, the Memphis region seems to have been favorably located for the control not only of river-based trade but also of desert trade routes. The two outwash fans in the area gave access to the extensive wadi systems of the eastern desert. In predynastic times, the Wadi Digla may have served as a trade route between the Memphis region and the Near East, to judge from the unusual concentration of foreign artifacts found in the predynastic settlement of Maadi.

  Access to, and control of, trade routes between Egypt and the Near East seems to have been a preoccupation of Egypt’s rulers during the period of state formation. The desire to monopolize foreign trade may have been one of the primary factors behind the political unification of Egypt. The foundation of the national capital at the junction of an important trade route with the Nile valley is not likely to have been accidental. Moreover, the Wadis Hof and Digla provided the Memphis region with accessible desert pasturage. As was the case with the cities of Hierakonpolis and Elkab, the combination within the same area of both desert pasturage and alluvial arable land (land suitable for growing crops) was a particularly attractive one for early settlement; this combination no doubt contributed to the prosperity of the Memphis region from early predynastic times.

  请同学们快速阅读上面两段,然后看看下面这个选项

  C.The rulers of unified Egypt enjoyed a monopoly over foreign trade because all such trade was required to go through the Wadi Digla, to which the rulers controlled all access.

  首先,提取这个选项的关键信息:

  “rulers”,“monopoly”,“trade through he Wadi Digla”,看起来似乎没什么大问题,以上都是在第二段中提到过,甚至重点强调过(如rulers)的词汇。

  然而,不知大家是否注意到了这个选项的“特别”之处:在做托福阅读的时候,大家一旦碰见类似“the Wadi Digla”这样专业性极强的专属名词应该立即引起警惕,但不是像绝大多数同学那样对这类名词产生恐惧,而是应该兴奋。为什么呢?因为这类名词通常都是对尤其是阅读最后一题选项正误很好的提示,更是对应原文时非常显著的标志物。

  很容易就可以找到,第二段提到了“the Wadi Digla”的主要是这样两处:

  “In predynastic times, the Wadi Digla may have served as a trade route between the Memphis region and the Near East…”和“Moreover, the Wadis Hof and Digla provided the Memphis region with accessible desert pasturage.”

  同时我们应该注意到在第二次提到“the Wadi Digla”之后,作者紧跟着介绍了两个类似的城市 “the cities of Hierakonpolis and Elkab”:

  “As was the case with the cities of Hierakonpolis and Elkab, the combination within the same area of both desert pasturage and alluvial arable land…”

  思考到这里我们已经可以判断这个选项是一个错误选项了。当我们需要用三个选项大致概括文章的主要观点时,其中的三分之一不可能只涵盖文章一个自然段不到一半的内容。这个选项已经犯下了第一大类的错误:过于关注细节。事实上,当任何一个选项的信息覆盖量甚至小于一个段落时,我们都需要警惕它是否犯下了以上错误。

  再次回看我们提炼出的两句话,还可以发现别的问题。选项中提到的“all such trade was required to go through the Wadi Digla”其实是对第一句话后续提到的信息的总结,然而,这句话另一个重要的信息在开头:“In predynastic times”,即这句话之后紧跟的所有信息都发生在埃及统一之前,和选项要求的“The rulers of unified Egypt”相冲突。文科类文章中常见以时间逻辑叙述的段落,甚至文章本身。因此,选项中任何对时间段的提示都是极其重要的信息,时间和事件的错位同样也是一个常见错误原因。

  篇幅有限,虽然文章中只分析了一个选项的分辨方式,事实上一旦掌握这种方法,对于任何错误选项都可以快速剔出。


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