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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 基础版》第1章 经济类 Unit 10

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2019年01月05日

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Focus on what you do best.This age-old strategy has worked well for RealNetworks,Microsoft's main competitor in multimedia software for the Internet.Now,the smaller Seattle-based firm is trying a novel way to contain the software giant.On October 29th,it released the underlying recipe,or source-code,of its RealPlayer software and will soon do the same for its other programs—giving away a big chunk of its intellectual property. 
This may sound like a desperate echo of 1998,when Netscape,struggling in Microsoft's chokehold,published the source-code of its web browser (an initiative that yielded few real results until this June,when the first serious new version of the open-source browser,Mozilla,was released). Yet RealNetworks is not playing defence.It is trying to encourage the creation of a common multimedia software infrastructure for every kind of file format and device,thus thwarting Microsoft's ambitions in this promising market. 
The firm hopes that others in the industry(volunteer programmers,media firms and hardware makers)will take the code,called Helix DNA,improve it and make it run on new devices,such as mobile phones and home stereos,turning RealNetworks’ software into an industry standard.Clever licensing terms are supposed to ensure that this standard does not splinter and that the firm still makes money. 
Individual developers,universities and other non-profit organisations can modify the software as they please,and even redistribute it for free,so long as they also publish the source-code for their changes.This is a sort of payment in kind,for RealNetworks is then allowed to use these contributions.Firms,on the other hand,must pay royalty fees if they distribute more than 1m copies of the code.They also have to make sure that their software works with other Helix DNA products.The software's development community already has 2,000 members.And several hardware makers back the effort.But there are risks.Afraid of piracy,media groups are suspicious of anything that might be related to hackers(although they also do not want to depend on,and pay for,technology controlled by Microsoft).The self-created competition could also hurt RealNetworks if customers decide its commercial products,which will be based on the open source-code but with extra features,are not worth paying extra for. 
RealNetworks’ move is another sign that the software industry is going hybrid.Mixing elements of proprietary software,where the source-code is tightly controlled,with open-source programs enables firms to expand a market,harvest the ideas of others and,they hope,still make money.Even Microsoft is edging this way: it recently announced that partners can now look at—but not modify or reuse—the source-code for Passport,its controversial digital-identity service. 
注(1):本文选自Economist; 
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象为 2004年真题Text 1。 
1.What is the RealNetworks’ new way of stopping Microsoft? 
A) By selling its intellectual property. 
B) By doing what it is good at. 
C) By releasing the free source-code. 
D) By severe competition with Microsoft. 
2.Which of the following can be a disadvantage of releasing the source-code? 
A) It can bring about self-created competition. 
B) It can defeat Microsoft's ambitions in this market. 
C) It can use the improved software. 
D) It can get royalty fees from some firms. 
3.The expression“a desperate echo”(Line 1,Paragraph 2)most probably means ______. 
A) a useless repetition 
B) a poor resemblance 
C) a shabby product 
D) a dangerous copy 
4.What does the move of RealNetworks suggest? 
A) Microsoft fails to control the software market. 
B) Software market is becoming a mixed market. 
C) RealNetworks wants to make more money. 
D) Software market is not fixed or stable. 
5.Which of the following is TRUE according to the text? 
A) Netscape had a sheer failure for its publishing the source-code. 
B) RealNetworks wants to occupy the source-code market. 
C) RealNetworks wants to make profits by releasing the free source-code. 
D) Microsoft has to change its managing strategy. 

“集中注意力做你最拿手的事”这一古老的策略对微软公司在互联网多媒体软件领域的主要竞争对手RealNetworks网络公司十分奏效。目前,这家位于西雅图的小型公司正试图用一种新方法来牵制微软这个软件界巨人。10月29日,这家公司发布了RealPlayer播放器软件秘诀,即源码,这一做法将很快适用于该公司的其他程序。同时,这也会使公司让出一大部分知识产权。 
这听起来似乎像是对1998年的一次危险仿效。那年,因被微软“掐着脖子”而奋起挣扎的Netscape公司发表了其网络浏览器的源码(在今年6月它推出了真正意义上的最新版开放源码浏览器——Mozilla之前,这种主动出击几乎没有给它带来任何实际效果)。但RealNetworks网络公司并不是在打防御战。它正大力创建一个适用于所有文件格式和驱动程序的公共多媒体软件基础结构,这样,它就在这个很使人看好的市场上有力地牵制住了微软的野心。 
该公司希望业内其他公司(志愿参加的程序设计公司、传媒公司和硬件制造公司)采用这种被称为Helix DNA的代码,对它加以改进,并在新装置(诸如移动电话和家用音响)上运行,最终把RealNetworks公司的软件变成一种行业标准。在精明的许可证发放条款保护下,这一标准不会被分成碎块,保证公司仍有钱可赚。 
个体开发商、大学和其他非盈利性组织,只要他们也能把其更改后程序的源码公布于众,可根据他们的意愿对该软件进行修改,甚至可以免费发放。这实际上是一种实物支付方式,因为到了那个时候,RealNetworks公司也可使用这些改进的软件成果。另一方面,如果其他公司销售了100万份以上的源码,他们须支付特许权使用费。他们还要保证他们的软件与其他Helix DNA产品兼容。软件开发业已拥有2,000余名成员。一些硬件制造商也支持这一举动。但是风险依然存在。由于担心被盗版,传媒组织对一切可能与黑客有关的举动都表示怀疑(尽管他们也不想依赖微软的技术并支付技术使用费)。但是自我制造的竞争也可能会伤害RealNetworks公司,如果客户认为不值得为以开放源码为基础但具有极佳特点的商业产品额外付钱的话。 
RealNetworks公司的举动表明了另一种迹象,即软件业混合发展模式方兴未艾。把那些源码受严格控制的专有软件成分(组件)与开放源码程序加以组合能拓展公司市场、集思广益,并且——他们希望——仍可赚钱。连微软公司也正以这种方式小心翼翼地行事:最近微软公司发出公告,说合伙人现在可以查看——但不能更改或再使用——Passport(微软有争议的数字验证服务)的源码。 
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