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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 基础版》第2章 社会文化类 Unit 30

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2019年01月09日

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At the end of last week,Bodega Aurrerá,a Mexican subsidiary of the world's biggest retailer,Wal-Mart,opened a new store in the village of San Juan Teotihuacán,just north of Mexico City.Normally,such an event would cause little stir.Wal-Mart is already Mexico's biggest retailer too.And its shops seem to go down very well with its millions of bargain-hungry customers.① But this particular opening was,in fact,the culmination of months of protests,legal actions,hunger strikes and hyperbole by those determined to stop it. 
The reason is the location.Just 2.5km(1.6 miles)away is the ancient city of Teotihuacán,probably Mexico's most famous archaeological site.Amongst other attractions,it boasts the third-largest(by volume)pyramid in the world.② For many Mexicans,the ancient site,abandoned by its mysterious inhabitants centuries before the Spanish conquerors arrived,remains the ultimate symbol of Mexican identity and nationhood. Thousands troop up to the top of the Pyramid of the Sun to celebrate the summer solstice. 
To them,the idea of having a Wal-Mart next door is abhorrent.In the words of Homero Aridjis,a writer and one of the leading opponents,“it is like driving the stake of globalisation into the heart of old Mexico.” The controversy is only the latest in a string of protesters’ attempts to save Mexican culture from what they see as a creeping menace.They won a famous victory by blocking a McDonalds restaurant from opening in the main square of the pretty southern colonial town of Oaxaca. 
But this time they were on much thinner ground.For a start,Wal-Mart went through all the appropriate regulatory hoops,even getting permission from the Paris-based International Council on Monuments and Sites,which judged that the store would cause no harm to the nearby ruins.A small stone platform was indeed found during construction of the new car park,but was preserved. 
Just as importantly,the claim that the new store spoils the famous view from the top of the Pyramid of the Sun is clearly bogus,as anyone who cares to get to the top can testify.The problem is not so much that you can see the Wal-Mart,but one of trying to distinguish it from the 30-odd other ugly,squat buildings that litter the surrounding countryside—to say nothing of the car parks,the electricity pylons and the large power station.Sadly,unrestricted building long ago ruined this particular view,as well as many others in Mexico. 
To the diehards,the issue counts more than the view.But neither mattered much to the hundreds of locals who queued up for the opening,delighted to be freed of the small and expensive local shops.Despite a legal case pending against Wal-Mart and local officials,brought by an irate local left-wing politician,this is one battle that the American retailer has probably won. 
注(1):本文选自Economist; 
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象为2001年真题Text 4(由于此部分真题只有4个题目,所以本文第4题模仿对象为2003年真题Text 1的第4题)。 
1.Why did the opening of Wal-Mart cause stir? 
A) Wal-Mart would have severe competition with the local stores. 
B) War-Mart would provide customers with a larger choice and more benefits. 
C) It was said to have ruined the scene of the ancient site. 
D) There shouldn’t be a store near the ancient site. 
2.From Paragraph 2 we can infer that ______. 
A) the ancient city means a lot to the Mexicans 
B) a store will be too noisy for the ancient city 
C) the ancient city is very mysterious 
D) the pyramid is a good place for holding a big ceremony 
3.According to Wal-Mart,it has a good reason to build a store there because ______. 
A) it proves no harm to the nearby ruins 
B) the scene of the ancient sites has been damaged 
C) customers want to buy some cheap products 
D) it has been widely accepted by the customers there 
4.It can be learned from Paragraph 5 that ______. 
A) the famous view is not as good as it used to be 
B) the city lacks planning in building 
C) the ancient site is littered with ugly buildings 
D) Wal-Mart shouldn’t be fully responsible for the ruined view 
5.Toward the fate of Wal-Mart,the writer's attitude can be said to be ______. 
A) objective 
B) optimistic 
C) pessimistic 
D) biased 

上周末,世界最大的零售商沃尔玛设在墨西哥的子公司Bodega Aurrerá在墨西哥城北部的圣胡安特奥帝瓦坎(San Juan Teotihuacán)村开了一家新店。通常情况下,这样的事情是不会引起什么反对的。沃尔玛已经是墨西哥最大的零售商了。新开的商店应该备受那些想买廉价货的上百万顾客的欢迎。这次开张实际上是那些决心阻止它成立的人数月以来进行抗议、动用法律手段、绝食抗议和其他一些偏激行为无效而落得的最终结果。 
事件的原因在于地段的选择问题。商店地址选在了离特奥蒂瓦坎古城仅2.5公里(1.6英里)的地方。该古城可能是墨西哥最为出名的古文化遗址,除了别的景观之外,它还拥有世界上第三大金字塔(从体积上来判断的话)。在西班牙征服者到来之前,这座古城被这里的神秘居民抛弃了数百年,但对很多墨西哥人来说它依然是墨西哥民族和国家身份的根本象征。每逢夏至都有上千人一起登上太阳金字塔的顶部以示庆祝。 
对于这些人来说,在古城附近建沃尔玛超市这样的主意简直太可恶了。奥梅罗·阿里迪斯是一位作家,也是主要的反对者之一,用他的话来说:“这好比是把全球化的树桩子插到了古老的墨西哥的心脏上。”在反对者看来,这是一种潜在的危险。为了使墨西哥文化免受危险,他们已做出了一系列努力,这场争端只是其中最近的一次。他们曾赢过一场令人满意的胜利,成功阻止了麦当劳餐厅在美丽的南部殖民城镇瓦哈卡(OaxacA)的主要广场上开店。 
但是这次他们的底气就没那么足了。因为从一开始,沃尔玛就通过了所有相关管理部门的审核,甚至还得到了驻巴黎的国际古迹遗址理事会的认可,他们判定在那里设店对周边遗迹是不会造成任何损害的。在新停车场施工过程中确实发现了一个小的石头平台,这已被保存起来了。 
同样重要的是,声称新店破坏了从太阳金字塔塔顶往下瞭望的良好的视觉效果,这显然是不对的,任何人只要登上塔顶就可以证实这一点。问题并不在于你能看到沃尔玛,而是你得从三十多个凌乱地散布在郊区的丑陋、低矮的建筑中努力去辨认沃尔玛——更不用提那里还有停车场、电缆塔和大型发电站了。令人遗憾的是,那些随意建成的建筑很早以前不但破坏了此处的独特风景,也毁了墨西哥的其他景观。 
对于顽固分子来说,事件本身要比风景问题重要。但是对于许许多多排队等候它开业的当地居民来说,这些都不重要了,因为他们再不用受又小又贵的当地商店的限制而开心不已。虽然当地一名愤怒的左翼政客对沃尔玛和当地官员提起的诉讼案件还悬而未决,但是在这场战斗中,美国零售商差不多已胜券在握了。 
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