考研英语 学英语,练听力,上听力课堂! 注册 登录
> 考研英语 > 考研英语阅读 >  内容

《考研英语阅读理解100篇 基础版》第3章 信息技术类 Unit 45

所属教程:考研英语阅读

浏览:

qinting

2019年01月13日

手机版
扫描二维码方便学习和分享

Life is looking up for managers at the 4,300 stores of Tesco,one of the world's biggest supermarket chains.A program from CA,a big software firm,will make a tedious job much easier: gathering data about each store's energy consumption,be it from lights,air conditioning or refrigeration.The streamlined data collection is part of Tesco's ambitious plan to halve emissions of greenhouse gases from existing stores and distribution centres by 2020. 
Tesco and CA may be pioneers,but they are not alone.While governments argue over emissions cuts,many firms have already started cleaning up their act,or at least preparing to do so—prompting more and more software firms to offer tools to help. If optimists are right,the market for“carbon-management software” could one day become at least as big as those for other important business applications such as customer-relationship-management(CRM)programs,which brought in revenues of more than $9 billion last year. 
Many firms have tracked energy consumption for some time in an effort to save money.Others have monitored emissions of different kinds in order to comply with regulations on pollution.More recently,public pressure has prompted more companies to tally emissions and disclose the results in their annual reports or to outfits like the Carbon Disclosure Project.But most have used simple tools such as spreadsheets and databases. 
This is changing,despite the recession,says David Metcalfe,boss of Verdantix,a consultancy.Higher energy costs,green branding and new regulation are all pushing more firms to keep track of their emissions and do so with specialised software,he argues.In Britain,for example,the Carbon Reduction Commitment will come into effect next year.Among other things,it requires firms that use more than 6,000 megawatt-hours of electricity a year to measure and report the energy they use. 
Anticipating a surge in demand,software-makers have rushed into the market,mostly with web-based services.In a recent survey AMR Research,another consultancy,identified no fewer than 157 providers.Some focus on reporting,others on compliance and yet others on optimising business processes.There are firms that have been around for years,such as Enviance and IHS.Many start-ups,notably Carbonetworks and Hara,have appeared.Even big software firms have moved into the market: CA,IBM,Oracle,SAP and SAS. 
At least for now,the needs of most firms are simple: making sure that data are collected regularly and can be audited.But in the years to come,this too will change,predicts Stephen Stokes of AMR.Firms will need software that collects data automatically,helps them find the best ways to cut emissions and also lets them manage other resources,such as water and waste.Messrs Metcalfe and Stokes both expect that Oracle and SAP,which already dominate most forms of business software,will become pre-eminent in this area,too,because it fits so naturally with their other offerings.These titans also have the cash to buy the best technology.In May SAP bought Clear Standards,a start-up.Oracle is expected to make a similar acquisition soon.But they face determined rivals.IHS has been quietly buying firms selling environmental software.Some expect great things from C3,a start-up founded by Tom Siebel,who pioneered CRM software. 
注(1):本文选自Economist; 
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象:2004年真题Text 1。(其中个别题目顺序做了部分调整。) 
1.How does the author introduce the topic? 
A) By posing a contrast. 
B) By justifying an assumption. 
C) By illustrating an example. 
D) By explaining a phenomenon. 
2.Why do more and more software firms develop carbon-management software? 
A) Because enterprises are increasingly aware of the importance of environmental protection. 
B) Because the global environment is deteriorating. 
C) Because the government is paying more attention to environmental protection. 
D) Because it would generate considerable revenue. 
3.Which of the following is NOT an objective in adopting environmental software? 
A) To save money from energy consumption. 
B) To cater to public demand. 
C) To fulfill legal obligations. 
D) To follow the government. 
4.The word“offerings”(Line 6,Paragraph 6)most probably means ______. 
A) branch companies 
B) products 
C) specialized software for environment 
D) CRM software 
5.Which of the following is TRUE according to the text? 
A) The current carbon-management software market is dominated by a few big companies. 
B) Companies are now demanding sophisticated software for the tracking of energy consumption and emission. 
C) An intense competition in environmental software market is approaching. 
D) The software for environmental protection will become as important as that of financial accounting. 

世界最大的连锁超市之一——Tesco公司旗下4300家连锁店的经理的生活前景正在好转。他们使用大型软件公司CA开发的一种程序,一项枯燥的工作就可以变得非常简单:收集每家店的能源消耗数据,不论是用于照明、空调还是制冷。这种高效的数据收集是Tesco公司雄心勃勃的计划中的一部分。计划到2020年,公司现有商店和分销中心的温室气体排放量将减少一半。 
Tesco和CA或许是先行者,但他们并不孤单。当各国政府还在争论减排问题时,许多公司已经开始让自己更为环保,或者至少准备这么做,这也促使越来越多的软件公司提供相应的辅助工具。如果乐观主义者的预期正确的话,“碳管理软件”市场有一天会发展到至少可以匹敌重要的商业应用软件的市场。后者中的例子是客户关系管理程序,去年的收益超过90亿美元。 
许多公司跟踪记录能源消耗量已经有一段时间了,为的是节约资金。还有些公司监控不同气体的排放情况,目的是遵守污染治理规定。最近,公众压力促使更多公司记录排放量,并且将结果公布在年报中,或者呈交给“碳披露项目”等机构。但大部分公司使用的还是简单工具,如电子制表和数据库。 
Verdantix咨询公司的老板戴维·梅特卡夫认为,尽管经济衰退,但上述情况却在改变。他提出,能源成本增加、绿色品牌推广以及新的规章制度,都促使更多的公司记录他们的排放量,而且使用专业软件来完成。例如,英国的《碳减量承诺》明年就会生效。除其他事项外,《承诺》规定年用电量超过600万千瓦时的公司要测算并报告其能源使用情况。 
由于预计需求将猛增,软件制造商纷纷涌入市场,其中大部分提供基于网络的服务。据另一家咨询公司AMR Research近期的一项调查,这类软件供应商不少于157家。一些软件关注统计结果报告,另一些重在遵循相应法规,还有一些致力于优化商业流程。有的软件公司已涉足环保领域多年,例如Enviance 和IHS公司。还出现了一些新的创业公司,如Carbonetworks和Hara。甚至一些大型软件公司也进驻环保软件市场,如CA、IBM、Oracle、SAP和SAS等。 
至少在目前,大部分公司的需求都很简单:确保数据收集的规律性和可审计性。但AMR公司的斯蒂芬·斯托克斯预计,几年后这种情况也会改变。届时公司将需要软件具有更多功能:自动收集数据、帮助找到最好的减排方法、管理其他资源如水资源和废弃物。梅特卡夫和斯托克斯先生都预计,Oracle和SAP这两家已经主导多种商业软件的公司在这个领域也将会是佼佼者,因为这与他们的其他软件产品非常契合。这些巨头也有财力购买最好的技术。五月份,SAP收购了一家新成立的公司Clear Standards。预计Oracle公司很快也会进行类似的收购。但他们也面对着坚定的对手。IHS公司已经在不声不响地收购一些销售环保软件的企业。一些人期待C3公司会有大动作,这家公司刚成立不久,创始人是客户关系管理软件的先行者汤姆·西贝尔。 
用手机学英语,请加听力课堂微信公众号:tingclass123
用户搜索

疯狂英语 英语语法 新概念英语 走遍美国 四级听力 英语音标 英语入门 发音 美语 四级 新东方 七年级 赖世雄 zero是什么意思

  • 频道推荐
  • |
  • 全站推荐
  • 广播听力
  • |
  • 推荐下载
  • 网站推荐