考研英语 学英语,练听力,上听力课堂! 注册 登录
> 考研英语 > 考研英语阅读 >  内容

《考研英语阅读理解100篇 基础版》第4章 科学研究类 Unit 52

所属教程:考研英语阅读

浏览:

qinting

2019年01月14日

手机版
扫描二维码方便学习和分享

Bryant Linares has one heck of a secret family recipe: how to make world-class diamonds.Seven years ago his father,Robert,produced a diamond in a high-pressure chamber of carbon gas and dropped it into an acid solution to clean it off.When he returned the next morning,he expected to find the usual yellow stone—a crude artificial diamond of some use to industry,perhaps,but not the stuff of dreams.At first there didn’t seem to be any stone at all.Then he saw,at the bottom of the beaker,so clear it was almost invisible,a perfect quarter-carat crystal of pure carbon.“It was the eureka moment,” says Bryant.① His father had managed what many scientists had given up on long ago: to manufacture a stone that wouldn’t look out of place on an engagement ring. 
Man-made diamonds are nothing new—industry started making them in the 1950s,and each year about 80 tons of low-quality synthetic diamonds are used in tools like drill bits and sanders.② High-quality crystals,though,open up huge possibilities,jewelry being the least of them. Scientists are most excited about the prospect of making diamond microchips.As chips have shrunk over the years,engineers have struggled with ways of dissipating the heat they create.Because silicon,the main component of semiconductors,breaks down at about 200 degrees Fahrenheit,some experts believe a new material will be needed in a decade or so.Diamonds might fit the bill.They can withstand 1,000 degrees,and electrons move through them so easily that they would tend not to heat up in the first place.Engineers could cram a lot more circuits onto a diamond-based micro-chip—if they could perfect a way of making pure crystals cheaply. 
The race is on.After working in secrecy for years refining their technique,the Linareses’ company,Apollo Diamond,now spits out 20 carats a week,both for jewelry and for diamond wafers that could be fashioned into microchips.Rivals have also been busy.Gemesis,a Sarasota,Fla.,firm,has developed a“diamond growth chamber”—a press that squeezes out high-quality diamonds in much the same way that the early presses made rough ones.Gemesis is making blue diamonds—rare and sought-after gemstones. 
Chipmakers are also getting into the act.The Japanese firm Nippon Telegraph and Telephone has already made prototype diamond semiconductors,and the Japanese government is actively promoting the technology.Most U.S.research is going on in universities and military labs,but Intel has recently taken an interest.Before the technology is ready for prime time,chipmakers will have to come up with a way to keep out impurities during manufacturing.And the attribute that makes diamonds so attractive—their hardness—also makes them difficult to manipulate. 
The new diamonds are likely to show up first as tiny light-emitting diodes,or LEDs,in flat-screen displays and high-definition televisions.And then,of course,there's jewelry.Although synthetics still carry a stigma,even experts can’t tell the difference.Natural-diamond merchants claim they aren’t worried,but De Beers has made a device that can distinguish between the natural stones and the synthetics and is distributing it to jewelers.Will consumers care? We might find out next year when Gemesis is ready to market its blue diamonds in the United States. 
注(1):本文选自Newsweek; 
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象为2002年真题Text 4。 
1.From the first paragraph,we learn that ______. 
A) all the diamonds are almost invisible 
B) many scientists had tried hard to make perfect diamonds long time ago 
C) Bryant's father expected to find a diamond used in industry 
D) diamonds are produced with carbon gas 
2.Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the text? 
A) Diamond can withstand higher degree than silicon. 
B) The main component of semiconductors will be replaced in a few years. 
C) High-quality crystals have least usages,esp.in jewelry. 
D) Engineers could not find perfect ways of making pure crystal cheaply. 
3.According to the passage,why can the companies increase and perfect their production of diamond? 
A) They all work in secrecy. 
B) They have improved their techniques. 
C) They have developed their own diamond chambers. 
D) They have turned the rough diamonds to high-quality ones. 
4.Which of the following best defines the word“attribute”(Line 5,Paragraph 4)? 
A) Quality. 
B) Contribution. 
C) Appearance. 
D) Value. 
5.The new diamond is NOT first used in ______. 
A) LEDs 
B) flat-screen displays 
C) high-definition televisions 
D) prototype diamond semiconductors 

布赖恩特·李艾尔斯有一副家传秘方:如何制造世界级的钻石。七年前,他的父亲罗伯特在一间高压碳气室中制造了一颗钻石,把它放入酸性溶液中清洗干净。第二天早晨当他回来时,他本指望看到通常的黄色钻石——在工业上具有某种用途的未加工的人工钻石,但可能并非梦寐以求的那种。开始他根本没有看到什么石头。接着他看到在烧杯底有一块完美的四分之一克拉的纯碳钻石,如此透明,几乎让人看不到它。“这是一个令人狂喜的时刻”,布赖恩特说。他的父亲完成了许多科学家很久以前放弃的研究,即制造出一块用在订婚戒指上也显得再合适不过的钻石。 
人造钻石并不是什么新生事物,20世纪50年代工业上就开始制造了,每年大约生产800吨低质量的人造钻石,用来制造工具,如钻头和打磨机。高质量的水晶展现了巨大的应用潜力,用来制作珠宝只是其中最小的一部分。科学家对于制造钻石芯片的前景最乐观。因为芯片会在多年以后收缩,工程师们努力想办法驱散它们产生的热量。因为半导体的主要成分硅在大约华氏200度就会破裂,一些专家认为大约十年后将需要一种新的材料。钻石可能是合适之选。首先它们可以承受1,000度的高温,电子很容易通过钻石,它们不容易升温。如果工程师们能找到一种完美的低成本制造纯水晶的方法,他们可以在一个钻石芯片上安装更多的线路。 
竞赛正在进行。理纳莱西(the Linareses)下属公司——阿波罗钻石公司秘密改进技术多年,如今坦言每周能生产20克拉钻石,用来制造珠宝和可以用来制造微芯片的钻石晶片。其竞争对手也很忙。佛罗里达州萨拉索塔的盖迈希(Gemesis)公司建造了一个“钻石成长室”,通过压力制造出高品质钻石,和以前制造低质量钻石的方法大体相同。盖迈希公司还可以生产蓝钻石,这是一种世人争相追求的珍贵宝石。 
芯片制造商也在行动。日本电报电话公司也已经制造出钻石半导体样品,日本政府正积极推动这项技术。美国的多数研究在大学和军队的实验室进行,但英特尔公司最近也已产生兴趣。在这项技术进入全盛期前,芯片制造商必须提出一种生产过程中去除杂质的方法。钻石之所以如此吸引人,是因为它的硬度,而这一特性也增加了钻石制造难度。 
新的钻石可能首先以微小的发光二极管,或者平板显示器和高清晰电视中的发光二极管的形态出现。当然还有珠宝。虽然人造的会带有瑕疵,但甚至专家们也不能分辨真伪。尽管天然钻石商人声称他们并不担心,但是德·比尔斯制造了一种可以区分天然钻石和人造钻石的设备,已经分发给珠宝商。消费者会在意吗?下一年盖迈希公司准备在美国销售它的蓝钻石,到那时,我们或许会明白的。 
用手机学英语,请加听力课堂微信公众号:tingclass123
用户搜索

疯狂英语 英语语法 新概念英语 走遍美国 四级听力 英语音标 英语入门 发音 美语 四级 新东方 七年级 赖世雄 zero是什么意思

  • 频道推荐
  • |
  • 全站推荐
  • 广播听力
  • |
  • 推荐下载
  • 网站推荐