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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 基础版》第4章 科学研究类 Unit 56

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2019年01月15日

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According to the new research appearing in the July 26 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine,obesity isn’t just spreading; rather,it may be contagious between people,like a common cold.Researchers from Harvard and the University of California,San Diego,reviewed a database of 12,067 densely interconnected people—that is,a group that included many families and friends—who had all participated in a major American heart study between 1971 and 2003. The participants met with heart researchers every two to four years.It was that information the NEJM authors mined to explore obesity in the context of a social network. 
According to their analysis,when a study participant's friend became obese,that first participant had a 57% greater chance of becoming obese himself.In pairs of people in which each identified the other as a close friend,when one person became obese the other had a 171% greater chance of following suit.James Fowler,study co-author and a political scientist at UC San Diego says that it's not just that people who share similar lifestyles become friends.He and co-author Nicholas Christakis of Harvard Medical School considered the possibility—and were surprised.For one thing,geographic distance between friends in the study seemed to have no impact: friends who lived a 5-hour drive apart and saw each other infrequently were just as influenced by each other's weight gains as those who lived close enough to share weekly take-out meals or pick-up basketball games.The best proof that friendship caused the weight gain,says Fowler,is that people were much more likely to pattern their own behavior on the actions of people they considered friends—but the relationship didn’t work in the other direction.If you had named another person as a friend,and your friend became obese,than you were more than 50% more likely to get fat too.But if your friend had not named you as a mutual friend,and you became obese,it would have no significant impact on your friend's weight. 
The obvious question is,Why? Spouses share meals and a backyard,but the researchers found a much smaller risk of gaining weight—a 37% increase—when one spouse became obese.Siblings share genes,but their influence,too,was much smaller,increasing each other's risk 40%.Fowler believes the effect has much more to do with social norms: whom we look to when considering appropriate social behavior.Having fat friends makes being fat seem more acceptable.“Your spouse may not be the person you look to when you’re deciding what kind of body image is appropriate,how much to eat or how much to exercise,” Fowler says.Nor do we necessarily compare ourselves to our siblings.“We get to choose our friends,” Fowler says.“We don’t get to choose our families.” 
Fowler and Christakis say that the contagion-effect should hold just as much for weight loss as it does for weight gain.“I would hope this influences individuals to get friends and families involved in decisions about health,” Fowler says.After all,he says,a weight-loss plan may be more effective if the people closest to you are on board.And,if you’re successful,your good health will help others achieve a healthy weight too.The impact extends not just to your friends,it turns out—but also to your friends’ friends,and even to their friends. 
注(1):本文选自Economist; 
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象为2002年真题Text 3。 
1.The following are factors causing obesity according to the researchers,EXCEPT_______. 
A) similar lifestyles among some people 
B) geographical distance between friends 
C) one's closest friend being fat 
D) being mutual friend with fat guys 
2.It can be inferred from the text that _______. 
A) all the participants are connected with each other in a considerably large social network 
B) it is a long-term study on which researchers spent years to study the contagion of obesity 
C) researchers meet participants suffering heart diseases regularly and other participants irregularly 
D) the study is based on a large and reliable database of another medical research 
3.The experiment involves both family members and friends because _______. 
A) researchers fail to find a more diverse and representative sample 
B) researchers have different hypotheses for family members and freinds 
C) researchers can easily find these people so as to conduct regular meetings in the long run 
D) researchers can compare the results between the friends group and the family group 
4.We can draw a conclusion from the text that _______. 
A) when people choose friends,obesity comes as the first standard 
B) the friends of a fat person must all be very fat 
C) family plays a more important role of affecting obesity 
D) the contagion-effect of obesity also sheds light on weight loss 
5.From the text we can see the writer seems _______. 
A) objective 
B) optimistic 
C) sensitive 
D) gloomy 

7月26日出版的《新英格兰医学杂志》刊登的一项新研究认为,肥胖的人不仅仅在越来越多,更可怕的是,肥胖会像感冒一样,在人与人之间传播。来自哈佛大学和加州大学圣地亚哥分校的研究者查阅了1971年到2003年期间参与美国一项重要心脏研究的12,067位受访者的数据库,这些受访者之间大多都有亲密的关系,包括许多家庭成员和朋友,他们每两至四年间就与心脏研究者见一次面。正是由于这些信息,使得《新英格兰医学杂志》刊登的这项研究的作者们对社会关系对肥胖的影响进行了深入研究。 
根据研究人员的分析,如果受访者的朋友肥胖的话,那些受访者自己变胖的可能性会比常人高出57%。如果两人互为挚友,那么这一几率将会高出常人171%。作者之一加州大学圣地亚哥分校的政治科学家詹姆斯·福勒认为并非只是有相似生活习惯的人才会成为朋友。此后詹姆斯·福勒与研究的合著者——哈佛医学院的尼古拉斯·克里斯塔克斯共同对此种可能性进行了研究,结果令他们十分惊讶。一方面,研究表明朋友之间的地理位置差距似乎根本不是问题:相距车程为5小时但经常不见面的朋友在对肥胖的相互影响上和每周都一起吃外卖或打篮球的朋友一样。福勒称友谊引起增重的最好证据就是,人们更加倾向于和心目中的朋友们做一样的事情——但反过来这种关系并不成立。如果你把一个人当作朋友,他变肥胖了的话,那你的肥胖概率会高出常人50%。要是他不把你当朋友,那么即使你胖了,对他的体重也没太大影响。 
现在的显著问题是为什么会有此情况?夫妻共处一室,共同进餐和生活,研究者发现当一方变胖时,另一方变胖的几率仅仅高了37%。兄弟姐妹的基因差不多,但他们之间的影响却也小得多,每人变胖的几率只有40%。福勒认为这与社会标准有很大关系,我们看人的时候总是在考虑什么是合适的社会行为。如果你的朋友是肥胖者,这就意味着你认为肥胖是可以接受的。福勒说:“我们选择配偶不会只看他/她的体型、他/她的食量和运动量。”我们也没有必要把自己同兄弟姐妹比较。他还说:“我们不能选择家庭,但我们可以选择朋友。” 
福勒和克里斯塔克斯认为这种“传染效应”对于减肥的影响应和增肥一样。福勒说:“我希望这个研究能使人们在考虑健康状况时把家人和朋友的因素也考虑进去。”他说,毕竟,如果你最亲密的人与你一起减肥的时候,这个计划会更加成功。同时,如果你成功减肥,那么你的健康也会帮助其他人达到理想的体重。这种效果不仅对于你的朋友有效,并且对你朋友的朋友,甚至他们(朋友的朋友)的朋友都会有影响。 
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