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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 基础版》第6章 教育类 Unit 79

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2019年01月20日

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The best public higher education in the world is to be found at the University of California(UC).This claim is backed up by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China,which provides an authoritative ranking of research universities.The UC's campus at Berkeley ranks third behind two private universities,Harvard and Stanford.Several of the other ten UC sites,such as Los Angeles and San Diego,are not far behind.Californians are justifiably proud.It is therefore no small matter that this glory may be about to end.“We are in irreversible decline,” says Sandra Faber,a professor of astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz who has inadvertently become a mouthpiece for a fed-up faculty.University excellence,she says,“took decades to build.It takes a year to destroy it.” 
California has been suffering serial budget crises,the latest of which was resolved last month in a rather desperate deal between the governor,Arnold Schwarzenegger,and the legislature.It contained huge cuts,including $2 billion lopped from higher education.The UC alone has lost a cumulative $813m of state funding in the last fiscal year and the current one,a cut of 20%.The second-tier California State University(Cal State),with 23 campuses the largest in the country,and the third-tier community colleges have also been clobbered. 
The cuts threaten the legacy of two visionaries,Edmund“Pat” Brown,governor from 1959 to 1967,and Clark Kerr,who was in charge of the UC during those years.Kerr envisioned the state's public universities as“bait to be dangled in front of industry,with drawing power greater than low taxes or cheap labour.” In a 1960 master-plan he created the three-tiered system. 
His ambition was simple.First,to educate as many young Californians as affordably as possible.The best students would go to the UC,the next lot to Cal State and the rest to community colleges with the possibility of trading up.Second,to attract academic superstars.Kerr went about this like a talent scout,and his successors have continued the practice.The UC campuses have collectively produced more Nobel laureates than any other university. 
But the master-plan has been under strain for years.State spending per student in the UC system,adjusted for inflation,has fallen by 40% since 1990,says Mark Yudof,the current UC president.The Public Policy Institute of California,a non-partisan think-tank,projects that California's economy will face a shortfall of 1m college graduates by 2025,depressing the prosperity of the entire state. Public universities,which award 75% of all the state's bachelor degrees,will be largely responsible. 
Academic excellence is likely to be the first victim.Both the UC and Cal State are planning to send professors and staff on leave,cram more students into classrooms and offer fewer courses.Attracting and keeping academic stars,and the research dollars that usually follow them,will become much harder.It is already happening,says Ms Faber.She recently hired three world-class assistant professors whose salaries are now at risk.Other universities have begun to get in touch with them,she says,and they will probably leave.Their best students may go with them.“We are eating our seed corn,” the professor laments. 
注(1):本文选自Economist; 
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象为2005年真题Text 1。 
1.In the opening paragraph,the author introduces his topic by ______. 
A) explaining a phenomenon 
B) justifying an assumption 
C) posing a contrast 
D) making a comparison 
2.The statement“It takes a year to destroy it.” (Line 8,Paragraph 1)implies that ______. 
A) it usually takes one year to destroy university excellence 
B) university excellence is much harder to build than to destroy 
C) it takes a short time to destroy university excellence 
D) to build university excellence is more time-consuming than to destroy it 
3.Clark Kerr designed the three-tiered system for California in order to ______. 
A) make public higher education more available and recruit more talents 
B) fulfill his job as the head of UC when Edmund“Pat” Brown was the governor 
C) make public higher education more attractive than low taxes and cheap labour 
D) produce as many Nobel laureates as possible 
4.The statistics in Paragraph 5 help us draw a conclusion that ______. 
A) the Californian public universities are suffering from financial crises 
B) California will soon face the embarrassing situation of talent shortage 
C) due to lacking fund,the Californian public universities will have fewer graduates 
D) California is going to sink in a long-term economic recession 
5.What can we infer from the last paragraph? 
A) The UC and Cal State are forced to fire some faulty and staff. 
B) The Californian higher education may lose its core competitiveness. 
C) The UC and Cal State are actively fighting against the financial constraint. 
D) The Californian higher education will lose all its best professors and students. 

要说世界上最好的公立高等教育恐怕非加州大学莫属,这一说法得到了由中国上海交通大学发布的一份研究型大学权威排名的鼎力支持。在这份排名中,加州大学伯克利分校位居第三,仅次于哈佛大学和斯坦福大学这两所私立大学。而加州大学其他十所分校中还有另外几所,如洛杉矶和圣地亚哥分校的排名也相当靠前。加州人完全有理由因此而感到自豪。这也是为何我们不能把这种荣耀可能行将终结视为小事。“我们的处境正在不可逆转地日益恶化。”加州大学圣克鲁斯分校的天体物理学教授桑德拉·费伯说,她的话道出了教职员工的心声,目前他们已经怨声载道。谈及大学的卓越,费伯说:“我们花了几十年的时间来创造,但毁掉它却只需要一年”。 
加州一直处于一系列预算危机之中,最近的一次直到上个月州长阿诺德·施瓦辛格与立法机关达成了一项几乎令人绝望的协定而得以解决。根据该协定,加州预算大幅削减,其中高等教育部门的预算被砍掉了20亿美元。光是加州大学就在上一财年累积丧失了8.13亿美元国家基金,本财年则被削减了20%。处于第二层级的加州州立大学有23个分校,是全美最大的州立大学系统,它与处于第三层级的社区大学都在财政上遭受了沉重的打击。 
这些削减威胁到两位富有远见的人士留下的遗产,他们是1959至1967年任加州州长的埃德蒙·“帕特”·布朗,和那几年加州大学的负责人克拉克·克尔。克尔预见到加州的公立大学是“实业面前晃来晃去的诱饵,比低税率或廉价劳动力更具吸引力。”在一份1960年做出的整体规划中,他创造了三个层级的体系。 
他的目标很简单。首先,在能力可承受的范围内,尽量为更多的加州年轻人提供受教育的机会。最优秀的学生入读加州大学,较为优秀的人就读加州州立大学,其余人则进入社区大学,而且也有可能升入前两个层级的大学。其次,吸引学术界的超级明星。克尔像人才发掘者那样开展了这项工作,其继任者也纷纷效仿。加州大学各分校造就的诺贝尔奖获得者总人数比任何一所大学都要多。 
但是,这个三层级的规划多年来都面临着各种压力。加州大学现任校长马克·尤多夫表示,自1990年以来,按通货膨胀因素进行调整后,分摊到加州大学体系内每个学生的州财政支出下降了40%。无党派智囊团,加州公共政策研究所预测,到2025年,加州将面临短缺100万大学毕业生的问题,这将给整个州的经济前景蒙上一层阴影。授予该州75%学士学位的公立大学将对此负有主要责任。 
首先牺牲掉的就是学术水准。加州大学和加州州立大学正计划让教授和工作人员休假、扩大班级规模,并减少课程数量。要想吸引并留住学术明星以及随他们而来的研究资金将更为困难。费伯女士说,现在这个问题已经出现了。她最近聘请了三位世界一流的助理教授,但现在他们的工资可能不保。她说,其他大学已经开始与他们接洽,他们很可能会离开加州大学,而他们最优秀的学生也可能随之而去。费伯教授感叹道:“我们现在可是在吃玉米种呀(根本不替今后着想)”。 
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