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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 4 - TEXT FOUR

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2019年01月30日

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The animal dissection requirement of biology classes has been getting under the skin of students for generations, and there have always been some who asked to be excused from the requirement. Now, a growing number of technological alternatives are making it possible for students to swap that scalpel for a computer mouse. There are laws in nearly a dozen states—including California, Florida, New Jersey, and New York—protecting a student's choice to learn about animal anatomy sans scalpel. Some students choosing to opt out feel we should be kinder to our web-footed friends. Others are just queasy at the thought of rubbery frog bodies and the smell of formaldehyde.
“Dissection is icky. There's a yuck factor,” admits Brian Shmaefsky, a board member with the National Association of Biology Teachers. “And a teacher has to weigh the benefits with the cost of students being offended to the point that it interferes with learning.”
Virtual blades. So for cases in which a real dissection would be too slimy, it's time to try some toad tech. While the first computer-based alternatives to dissection emerged in the 1980s, modern frog dissection software can be found at different websites. These software programs use creative clicking, high-powered zoom functions, and video clips to teach anatomy. Froguts software, for example, lets students trace incision lines with a computer mouse and snip through skin with a virtual blade. There are even sound effects like a “slish” for slicing frog flesh, or a “shwoosh” for pinning down skin flaps. (Schools currently pay about $300 for a one-year software license, though some organizations will lend programs out free of charge.)
Earlier this year, a graduate student from Simon Fraser University in Vancouver designed the first-ever haptic (the Greek word for “touch”) frog dissection program, which uses a penlike tool to create a sensation similar to cutting into real flesh. The hand-held device connects to a computer, and students move the device through the air while watching the results of their actions on a computer screen.
With Digital Frog—a popular program that's had approximately 1,500 frog demo downloads since January and is currently in use in 2,000 schools—students can add or subtract those amphibious organs with a mere mouse click. They can then assess their learning with sporadic frog anatomy quizzes.
“Repetition is helpful. The fact that a student can review sections of a program over and over again is important,” says Martin Stephens, vice president for animal research issues at the Humane Society of the United States. “In dissections, the animal's organs are all shriveled and discolored. You look for things and can't find them because body parts have changed drastically since the animal was killed. But on a computer screen, layers can be digitally peeled away.” Other experts think the dissection technology has its limits. Gerry Wheeler, executive director of the National Science Teachers Association, says that artificial simulations don't give as enriching an experience as the real thing. Still others worry the programs are depriving kids of experiential learning.
1. The word “swap” (Line 3, Paragraph 1) most probably means _____.
[A] exchange
[B] throw away
[C] reject
[D] refuse
2. Some students ask to be excused from the requirement of biology classes because of the following reasons except that _____.
[A] dissection consists of disgusting procedures and unpleasant smells
[B] they are entitled to reject dissection requirement given the legal regulation
[C] they are offended when fulfilling the requirement of animal dissection
[D] they insist people should treat animals more as friends instead of simply objects
3. Brian Shmaefsky's statement implies that _____.
[A] he indeed supports the students' animal protection movement
[B] he thinks the animal dissection should be banned
[C] he thinks the animal dissection may not be good for students to learn biology effectively
[D] he always evaluate the teaching effect by weighing relevant factors of cost and effect
4. Compared with the real dissection, the dissection on computer has the following advantages except that _____.
[A] it has authentic sound effect like a “slish” or “shwoosh”
[B] there is a sensation of always dealing with fresh and recognizable organs
[C] the process can be repeated so that students can gather better insight of the animal structure
[D] students can take quizzes with the software to evaluate the learning effect
5. The author's attitude towards the toad tech can be said to be _____.
[A] supportive
[B] doubtful
[C] objective
[D] biased

1. The word “swap” (Line 3, Paragraph 1) most probably means _____.
[A] exchange
[B] throw away
[C] reject
[D] refuse
1. swap(第一段第三行)这个词最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 交换
[B] 抛弃
[C] 丢弃
[D] 拒绝
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆
分析:猜词题。上文提到,有一些学生要求不做这种解剖,那么现在有许多科技替代物使得这个成为现实,就是用计算机鼠标来替代解剖刀;下文也提到了用电脑程序来代替真正的用解剖刀进行的实验。因此,正确答案为A。
2. Some students ask to be excused from the requirement of biology classes because of the following reasons except that _____.
[A] dissection consists of disgusting procedures and unpleasant smells
[B] they are entitled to reject dissection requirement given the legal regulation
[C] they are offended when fulfilling the requirement of animal dissection
[D] they insist people should treat animals more as friends instead of simply objects
2. 一些学生要求免上生物课是因为除了选项 _____ 外的以下原因。
[A] 解剖的过程很恶心且气味难闻
[B] 有相应的法律允许他们拒绝修解剖课程
[C] 他们在按要求上动物解剖课时,感觉自己受到了冒犯
[D] 他们坚持认为,人们对待动物应该更像朋友而不是物体
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第一段提到,一些学生选择不做解剖实验是因为他们感到应对这种动物友好些,另外,还因为一想到青蛙的身体、闻到甲醛的味道就感到恶心。因此,答案A和D是原因,答案B并不是他们不愿意做解剖的原因,而是因为他们不愿意做才有了相关法律保护他们的这种权利。选项C包含了A和D两个选项。因此,答案为B。
3. Brian Shmaefsky's statement implies that _____.
[A] he indeed supports the students' animal protection movement
[B] he thinks the animal dissection should be banned
[C] he thinks the animal dissection may not be good for students to learn biology effectively
[D] he always evaluate the teaching effect by weighing relevant factors of cost and effect
3. Brian Shaefsky的话意味着 _____。
[A] 他实际上支持学生们的保护动物的运动
[B] 他认为应当禁止解剖动物
[C] 他认为动物解剖不一定有利于学生有效地学习生物
[D] 他总是通过衡量相关的成本及产出等因素来评估教学效果
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。Brian Shmaefsky的话分为两部分:解剖总是黏糊糊的,比较讨厌;老师应该衡量一下,学生如果感觉受到了冒犯,甚至影响到了学习效果,那就得不偿失了。前半句也是为后面的服务,又根据他是国家生物教师协会的成员可见,他觉得这种解剖有时会妨碍学生学习。选项C符合题意。选项D并不是他想要表达的意思;选项B,他并没有表示出这一点来;而选项A在文章中没有得到明确的体现。
4. Compared with the real dissection, the dissection on computer has the following advantages except that _____.
[A] it has authentic sound effect like a “slish” or “shwoosh”
[B] there is a sensation of always dealing with fresh and recognizable organs
[C] the process can be repeated so that students can gather better insight of the animal structure
[D] students can take quizzes with the software to evaluate the learning effect
4. 相对于真正的解剖,电脑解剖有以下的优点,但 _____ 除外。
[A] 它有真实的声音效果,如发出“嘶”或“嗤”的声音
[B] 软件给人的感觉是,这些动物器官都是新鲜的,且易于辨认
[C] 解剖过程可以重复,以便于学生们更加深入地了解动物的结构
[D] 学生可以用软件中的一些测验来评估他们的学习效果
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。题目要求找出电脑解剖相对于传统解剖的优点所在,选项A是电脑模仿实际解剖的声音效果,而这种声音本身在实际解剖中也有,因此只是一种模仿,并不是电脑的高超之处。B,文章第六段提到,动物的器官都是干瘪皱缩、没有颜色的。你找不到想要找的东西,因为动物被杀死后,身体的各个部分变化很大。但是在电脑屏幕上,身体的每一层都可以电子式地剥下来。C,文章第六段也提到,解剖的过程可以重复,这样学生就可以复习。D在第五段中提到。因此,答案为A。
5. The author's attitude towards the toad tech can be said to be _____.
[A] supportive
[B] doubtful
[C] objective
[D] biased
5. 作者对于这种解剖科技的态度可以说是 _____。
[A] 支持的
[B] 怀疑的
[C] 客观的
[D] 有偏见的
答案:A 难度系数:☆
分析:态度题。在这篇文章中,作者介绍了生物课上解剖实验的替代物——电脑解剖程序,虽然在文章最后一段作者也提到了这种替代物的局限性,但是从整篇文章来看,作者对此都是一种赞赏的态度,列举了这种方法的优点。因此,其态度是支持的,应选A。

一直以来,所有生物学专业的学生都被要求必修动物解剖课,而经常有人希望可以免修这门课。目前,日益增多的科技替代品使得学生们可以用一个电脑鼠标来替代解剖刀。有十来个州(包括加利福尼亚州、佛罗里达州、新泽西州和纽约州)都有相关法律,保证学生可以不拿解剖刀就能学习动物解剖。一些选择不用解剖刀的学生认为,我们对这些脚上有蹼的朋友也应该友善一些。而还有一些人一想到青蛙有弹性的身体和甲醛的气味就感到恶心。
“解剖黏糊糊的,挺讨厌的。”国家生物学教师联合会管理委员会的委员Brian Shmaefsky承认说。“老师必须衡量一下学生感到被冒犯、甚至影响到学习这个问题。”
虚拟刀片。因此如果实体解剖黏糊糊的话,那么就该来尝试一些“蛤蟆科技”了。第一种基于电脑的解剖替代品出现在20世纪80年代,而现代的青蛙解剖软件可以在许多不同的网站上找到。这些软件程序用富有创意的点击、高性能的缩放功能以及视频短片来教授解剖。比如,“青蛙内脏”软件让学生使用鼠标就可以顺着切口线用一把虚拟解剖刀切开青蛙的皮肤。这些软件甚至还有声音效果,比如在划开青蛙肌肉时有“嘶”的一声,或是钉下皮肤组织时会发出“嗤”的一声。(现在学校要为软件的年度许可证支付约300美元,但有的组织会免费借出程序。)
今年年初,温哥华西蒙·弗雷泽大学的一名研究生设计出了第一个haptic(希腊语单词,意为“触觉”)青蛙解剖程序,这个程序用一种类似笔的工具创造出一种与切割真正的皮肉时相似的感觉。这种手持工具与电脑相连,学生可以在空中移动该工具,同时可以在电脑屏幕上观看他们操作的结果。
“电子青蛙”是一种很受欢迎的程序,自1月份以来,大约有1500个青蛙样品供下载,现在有2000所学校在使用。学生们只需用鼠标点击就可以加上或切除这种两栖动物的器官,然后还可以不时用青蛙解剖小测试来检查自己学习的效果。
“重复是有帮助的,事实上,学生可以一遍又一遍地回顾整个程序的各个部分,这是非常重要的。”美国保护动物协会动物研究事务副主任Martin Stephens这样说。“在解剖的过程中,动物的器官都是干瘪皱缩、没有颜色的。你找不到想要找的东西,因为动物被杀死后,身体的各个部分变化很大。但是在电脑屏幕上,身体的每一层都可以电子式地剥下来。”其他专家认为解剖技术有其局限性。国家科学教师协会执行理事Gerry Wheeler称,虚拟演示并不能像真正的解剖那样,提供一种丰富的经验。也有人担心,这些程序会剥夺孩子们的实践学习。
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