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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 6 - TEXT TWO

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2019年02月01日

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China makes computers, but imports most of its chips. India makes drugs, but copies almost all of the compounds; it writes software, but rarely owns the result. The bolder claims made for all three industries thus have a similar, hollow ring. They have flourished, but mostly on the back of other countries' technology. “We are not at the stage of Intel Inside,” admits Arvind Atignal of Clinigene, a clinical-research firm, drawing his own analogy between desktops and drugs. “We are the keyboard, screens and peripherals.”
How much does this matter? Joseph Xie of SMIC, the Chinese chipmaker, spent seven years working inside Intel. Its strategy, he says, was simple: “Get there first; make most of the money; let the second guy get the change.” That is certainly one way to run a technology firm. But competing in that race is expensive and exhausting. Few of Intel's rivals still try to keep up with it, nanometre by nanometre.
Countries of China's and India's heft and ambition cherish the idea of pushing back the limits of technology. But that push is risky, costly, frustrating work. A country shouldn't do it unless it has to. Although China and India could devote their considerable intellectual resources to solving the problems faced by economies on the technological frontier, why cross that bridge until you reach it? Seen in this light, India's generic drugmakers are models not laggards. They invest in just enough know-how to exploit the rest of the world's discoveries. Thanks to them, Indians enjoy some of the world's cheapest medicines.
Under the WTO's Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights agreement (TRIPS), India has ceded the right to free-ride foreign advances. It now grants 20 years of patent protection to inventions hatched after 1995. In return, it hopes tighter laws will inspire Indians to new exploits in innovation, and reassure foreigners wary of inventing or making original products in the country.
The tougher laws may yet succeed. A recent study by Bruce Abramson of the World Bank expresses high hopes. A “patent chic” is already detectable in the country, he reports. He has even heard of Indian farmers calling lawyers in the hope of patenting their prize vegetables.
But, as yet, the new regime has not proved its worth. Over 17,000 patent applications were filed in India in 2004-05, almost 40% more than the year before. But only 3,500 were by Indians. Of the 49 most prolific filers in the past decade, 44 are either foreign companies or subsidiaries. Of the five Indian firms, all are either government-sponsored institutes or generic-drug companies, which did fine before TRIPS.
The new regime will be costly to run, if India takes it seriously. But the larger cost lies in the opportunities for unabashed imitation that India has now forgone. These lost opportunities might be quite big. Had Indian firms been prevented from copying fluoroquinolones, for example, the Indian public would have been worse off by the equivalent of $255m a year, reckons a study of the antibiotics market by Shubham Chaudhuri of the World Bank, Pinelopi Goldberg of Yale and Panle Jia of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
1. Arvind Atignal draws an analogy between desktops and drugs because _____.
[A] both of them have a similar prospect in China and India
[B] both industries in India are still lacking core technology
[C] drug-making is marginalized in India
[D] the two industries have a similar operation in India
2. According to the third paragraph, the idea maintained by countries like China and India is _____.
[A] to do the best they could
[B] to solve the technological problems to the best of their ability
[C] to go beyond the limits of technology
[D] to do what they have to
3. India has ceded the right to free-ride foreign advances because _____.
[A] it wants to push back the limits of technology
[B] it is in accordance with TRIPS
[C] it wants to inspire Indians to making innovation
[D] it wants to protect the inventions by the foreigners
4. From the data of the sixth paragraph, it can be inferred that _____.
[A] the tougher laws were not successful since it failed to raise Indians' enthusiasm for patents
[B] Indians were not so inventive as the foreign counterparts measured by patent application
[C] Indians' inventions were negligible because most firms were funded by the government and thus lacked incentive
[D] Indians were still left behind in inventions even under the system that encouraged patenting
5. Towards the future of the new regime, the author's attitude can be said to be _____.
[A] pessimistic
[B] optimistic
[C] dubious
[D] objective

1. Arvind Atignal draws an analogy between desktops and drugs because _____.
[A] both of them have a similar prospect in China and India
[B] both industries in India are still lacking core tech-nology
[C] drug-making is marginalized in India
[D] the two industries have a similar operation in India
1. Arvind Atignal将电脑和药品做了一个类比,因为 _____。
[A] 它们在中国和印度的前景类似
[B] 它们在印度都缺乏核心技术
[C] 印度的制药业被边缘化了
[D] 这两个产业在印度有相似的运营方式
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。Arvind Atignal供职于临床研究公司,他做这样的类比应该是要说明医药方面的情况。对于电脑来说,键盘和显示器只是外围的设备,核心是芯片。结合上文所说的印度制药业的情况,可以看出他做这样的类比是为了说明印度制药业的核心还不在自己手上,它们做的一些东西都是边缘化的。因此,选项C最为符合题意。至于选项B提到的核心技术,相应的段落没有具体叙述,因此B是干扰选项。
2. According to the third paragraph, the idea maintained by countries like China and India is _____.
[A] to do the best they could
[B] to solve the technological problems to the best of their ability
[C] to go beyond the limits of technology
[D] to do what they have to
2. 根据第三段,类似中国和印度的一些国家持有的观点是 _____。
[A] 要尽自己最大的努力
[B] 尽他们最大的能力来解决技术难题
[C] 竭力超越技术极限
[D] 只做他们必须做的
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第三段主要就是描述此类国家在技术创新方面的观点。他们认为,等到了确实需要的时候再进行研究,目前需要什么就研究什么,不要过于超前追求技术的创新。选项A、B和C正好和这个观点相反,而选项D符合这个观点的意思,是正确答案。
3. India has ceded the right to free-ride foreign advances because _____.
[A] it wants to push back the limits of technology
[B] it is in accordance with TRIPS
[C] it wants to inspire Indians to making innovation
[D] it wants to protect the inventions by the foreigners
3. 印度已经放弃了免费获取国外先进技术的权利,这是因为 _____。
[A] 它想要拓展科技的极限
[B] 这是为了与《贸易相关知识产权》协议保持一致
[C] 它想要激励印度人进行创新
[D] 它想要保护外国人的发明
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第四段讲的是,印度目前采取了一些措施想要改变技术创新的现状。首先提到,印度依据世贸组织的《贸易相关知识产权》协议,放弃了免费获取外国先进技术的权利。可以看出,是这项协定起的作用,因此,答案为选项B,而其他三个选项的内容在第四段中都没有提到。
4. From the data of the sixth paragraph, it can be inferred that _____.
[A] the tougher laws were not successful since it failed to raise Indians' enthusiasm for patents
[B] Indians were not so inventive as the foreign counterparts measured by patent application
[C] Indians' inventions were negligible because most firms were funded by the government and thus lacked incentive
[D] Indians were still left behind in inventions even under the system that encouraged patenting
4. 从第六段的数据可以看出 _____。
[A] 更为严格的法律在激发印度人对于专利的热情方面没有效果
[B] 如果以专利申请的情况来衡量,那么印度人没有外国人善于发明创造
[C] 印度人的发明可以忽略,因为大部分公司都是由政府投资的,因此他们缺乏发明的动力
[D] 即使在鼓励专利申请的系统下,印度人在发明创造方面仍然比较落后
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。从文章第六段中给出的数据可以明显地看出,印度人在发明创造的专利申请方面比起外国人来少之又少,而结合前面谈到的情况,可以得出结论:印度在发明创造方面还远远不如外国人。因此,选项D最为符合。选项A不正确,是因为这些数据可能是该法律实施前的数据。C只是表面的现象,从深层次来讲原因还是印度的发明创造落后。
5. Towards the future of the new regime, the author's attitude can be said to be _____.
[A] pessimistic
[B] optimistic
[C] dubious
[D] objective
5. 对于这个新兴国家的未来,作者的态度是 _____。
[A] 悲观的
[B] 乐观的
[C] 怀疑的
[D] 客观的
答案:A 难度系数:☆
分析:态度题。这篇文章介绍了目前印度为改变技术创新方面的现状所做的一些努力,但从后面的描述中可以看出,这些举措还未成功,而且最后谈到,这样的话,印度损失很大。由此可以看出,作者对这个前景的态度并不乐观,故选项A最为符合。

中国制造电脑,但大部分芯片都是进口的;印度制药,但几乎所有的配方都是抄来的;印度还编软件,但最后的成果却很少归他们所有。关于这三个行业的大胆设想都有相似的、空洞的性质。这些行业都很兴盛,但是却要依仗其他国家的技术。“我们还没到英特尔内核那个层面,”临床研究公司Clinigene的Arvind Atignal承认,他将电脑和医药进行了类比。“我们只不过是键盘、显示器和一些外围设备罢了。”
那么这有多大关系呢?中国芯片制造商SMIC的Joseph Xie在英特尔公司工作了七年。他说,英特尔的策略很简单:“先到一个地方,赚大部分钱,让第二个人得点儿零头。”这当然是运营科技公司的一种方法,但是这种竞争是昂贵的,也是耗费精力的。英特尔的几个对手仍在追赶它,尽管是以毫微米的速度。
在影响和抱负方面与中国和印度不相上下的国家都希望能拓展技术的极限,但是这种做法有一定风险、耗费财力且容易落空。一个国家如果不是迫不得已就不应该这样做。尽管中国和印度能够投入可观的智力资源来解决在技术前沿遇到的经济问题,那为什么不在碰到问题时再跨越这座桥呢?要是这样看的话,印度的生物制药商就是典范而不是落后者了。他们只投入了足够的专门技术去开发世界各地的新发现。正是因为他们,印度人才能够享受到世界上最便宜的药物。
根据世界贸易组织的《贸易相关知识产权》协议,印度已经放弃了免费获得国外先进技术的权利。现在,印度给予1995年之后的发明20年的专利保护,希望从紧的法律可以激励印度人探索新发明,也让那些一直对在这个国家进行发明创造充满戒心的外国人安心。
更为从紧的法律还未成功。不过世界银行的Bruce Abramson最近进行的一项研究表达了较高的期望。他说,在这个国家已经出现了“专利风潮”。他甚至曾听说,印度的农民打电话给律师,希望可以为他们得奖的蔬菜申请专利。
但是,这个新兴的国家还没有证实自己的价值。2004年至2005年,印度的专利权申请有17,000多宗,比前一年多了近40%。但是其中只有3,500宗是印度人申请的。在过去的10年里,49家业务最多的专利申请机构中,有44个是外国公司或外国公司的子公司。而这五家印度公司不是政府资助的研究所,就是生物制药公司,它们在《贸易相关知识产权》协议生效前就做得很出色。
如果印度真的要这样做的话,那么它运作起来就太耗费钱财了。但是更大的损失在于印度目前放弃的模仿机会。这种丢失掉的机会可能很多。比如,根据世界银行的Shubham Chaudhuri、耶鲁大学的Pinelopi Goldberg以及麻省理工大学的Panle Jia所做的一项关于抗生素市场的研究,如果禁止印度公司抄袭氟硅酮的配方,那么印度民众一年可能就要损失2.55亿美元。
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