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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 6 - TEXT FOUR

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2019年02月02日

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Working out exactly what students and taxpayers get for the money they spend on universities is a tricky business. Now the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), a Paris-based think-tank for rich countries, is planning to make the task a bit easier, by producing the first international comparison of how successfully universities teach.
“Rather than assuming that because a university spends more it must be better, or using other proxy measures for quality, we will look at learning outcomes,” explains Andreas Schleicher, the OECD's head of education research. Just as the OECD assesses primary and secondary education by testing randomly chosen groups of youngsters from each country in reading and mathematics, it will sample university students to see what they have learned. Once enough universities are taking part, it may publish league tables showing where each country stands, just as it now does for compulsory education. That may produce a fairer assessment than the two established rankings, though the British one does try to broaden its inquiry by taking opinions from academics and employers.
There is much to be said for the OECD's approach. Of course a Nobel laureate's view on where to study may be worth hearing, but dons may be so busy writing and researching that they spend little or no time teaching—a big weakness at America's famous universities. And changes in methodology can bring startling shifts. The high-flying London School of Economics, for example, tumbled from 17th to 59th in the British rankings published last week, primarily because it got less credit than in previous years for the impressive number of foreign students it had managed to attract.
The OECD plan awaits approval from an education ministers' meeting in January. The first rankings are planned by 2010. They will be of interest not just as a guide for shoppers in the global market, but also as indicators of performance in domestic markets. They will help academics wondering whether to stay put or switch jobs, students choosing where to spend their time and money, and ambitious university bosses who want a sharper competitive edge for their institution.
The task the OECD has set itself is formidable. In many subjects, such as literature and history, the syllabus varies hugely from one country, and even one campus, to another. But OECD researchers think that problem can be overcome by concentrating on the transferable skills that employers value, such as critical thinking and analysis, and testing subject knowledge only in fields like economics and engineering, with a big common core.
Moreover, says Mr. Schleicher, it is a job worth doing. Today's rankings, he believes, do not help governments assess whether they get a return on the money they give universities to teach their undergraduates. Students overlook second-rank institutions in favour of big names, even though the less grand may be better at teaching. Worst of all, ranking by reputation allows famous places to coast along, while making life hard for feisty upstarts. “We will not be reflecting a university's history,” says Mr. Schleicher, “but asking: What is a global employer looking for?” A fair question, even if not every single student's destiny is to work for a multinational firm.
1. The project by OECD is aimed to _____.
[A] assess primary and secondary education of each school that subscribes to the service
[B] appraise the learning outcomes of university students as part of their academic performance
[C] establish a new evaluation system for universities
[D] set up a new ranking for compulsory education
2. The assessment method by OECD is different from the established rankings in _____.
[A] that its inquiry is broader as to include all the students and staff
[B] that its samples are chosen randomly based on statistical analysis of method
[C] that it attaches more importance to the learning efficiency
[D] that it takes opinions from the students to see what they have learned
3. The best universities in the Nobel laureate's eye are _____.
[A] those of high reputation
[B] those ambitious universities
[C] the feisty upstarts
[D] those high-flying universities
4. By the case of London School of Economic, the author wants to show that _____.
[A] the OECD's approach is very fair
[B] the Nobel laureate's opinion is not worth hearing
[C] the British rankings pays more attention to the foreign students
[D] different assessment methods may lead to different ranking results
5. The OECD's ranking system will probably be welcomed most by _____.
[A] parents who pay for the children's secondary education
[B] the famous colleges
[C] those ambitious second-rank institutions
[D] shoppers in the global market

1. The project by OECD is aimed to _____.
[A] assess primary and secondary education of each school that subscribes to the service
[B] appraise the learning outcomes of university students as part of their academic performance
[C] establish a new evaluation system for universities
[D] set up a new ranking for compulsory education
1. 经济合作与发展组织的这个项目的目的是 _____。
[A] 评价那些预定该服务的初级和中级教育学校
[B] 评价大学生的学习成果,作为他们学业表现的一部分
[C] 建立新的大学评价系统
[D] 建立新的义务教育的评判等级
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。文章第一段提到,经济合作与发展组织目前正在进行一个项目,想将世界各国的大学教育效果做一个对比;再根据第二段,一旦有足够多的大学参与进来,就可以创建一份表格,标明每个国家的位置。而且这个系统比现有的两个评价等级更公平。那么,可以推断,这个项目是为了建立新的大学评价系统,因此选项C为正确答案。选项B只不过是建立该体系的一个步骤,并不是终极目的。
2. The assessment method by OECD is different from the established rankings in _____.
[A] that its inquiry is broader as to include all the students and staff
[B] that its samples are chosen randomly based on statistical analysis of method
[C] that it attaches more importance to the learning efficiency
[D] that it takes opinions from the students to see what they have learned
2. 经济合作与发展组织的评价方法和现有的评价等级的不同之处在于 _____。
[A] 调查包括了所有的学生和教师,因而更为广泛
[B] 基于统计分析的方法,随机抽取调查样本
[C] 更注重学习效果
[D] 听取学生的意见,看看他们都学到了什么
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。文章第二段一开头就指出,经济合作与发展组织不会认为一个大学投入的资金越多该大学就越好,也不会用其他代理措施来评估质量,他们更注重的是学习结果。在最后一段又提到,该系统不看重学校的名气,而更看重一个学校的教学成果。由此可见,他们的不同之处是,经济合作与发展组织更加注重这种效果,因此选项C最为符合题意。
3. The best universities in the Nobel laureate's eye are _____.
[A] those of high reputation
[B] those ambitious universities
[C] the feisty upstarts
[D] those high-flying universities
3. 在诺贝尔奖获得者的眼里,最好的大学是 _____。
[A] 那些负有盛名的大学
[B] 那些有抱负的大学
[C] 富有活力的新兴大学
[D] 那些有雄心大志的大学
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆
分析:推理题。第三段提到,当然诺贝尔奖得主关于应该在哪里学习的意见值得听取,但是大学教授们可能忙于写书或做研究,因此在教学方面投入的时间很少或几乎没有,这是美国名校的一大弱点。从这一点可以推断出,诺贝尔奖获得者应该是推荐了美国的名校,否则文章不会提到名校存在的问题。因此,选项A是正确答案。
4. By the case of London School of Economic, the author wants to show that _____.
[A] the OECD's approach is very fair
[B] the Nobel laureate's opinion is not worth hearing
[C] the British rankings pay more attention to the foreign students
[D] different assessment methods may lead to different ranking results
4. 作者举伦敦经济学院的例子是想说明 _____。
[A] 经济合作与发展组织的方法非常公平
[B] 诺贝尔奖获得者的观点不值得听取
[C] 英国评定等级更看重外国学生
[D] 不同的评判方式会排出不同的等级
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第三段提到,在上周发布的英国评级结果中,伦敦经济学院由第17位滑落至第59位,这主要是因为相对于上一年度,该校在尽力争取大量的外国学生方面所得的分数减少了。而在这个例子的前面有一句话,即方法上的改变可以带来令人震惊的结果。那么可以猜出,这个评级可能和之前的评级方法还有所不同,而这个例子可能就是要说明这个问题。因此,选项D最为符合题意。
5. The OECD's ranking system will probably be welcomed most by _____.
[A] parents who pay for the children's secondary education
[B] the famous colleges
[C] those ambitious second-rank institutions
[D] shoppers in the global market
5. 经济合作与发展组织的评级系统可能最会受到 _____ 的欢迎。
[A] 那些为孩子支付高等教育费用的家长们
[B] 名牌学校
[C] 那些抱负远大的二类学校
[D] 国际市场上的买家
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。经济合作与发展组织的这个评价系统注重学校的教学质量,而不注重学校的名气,因此A和B可能不会特别欢迎这个系统。C,这类学校有教学成绩,却苦于没有名气,如果这个系统能给予公平的评定,那么它们的排名肯定会提前,因此这个系统应该会受到它们的欢迎。D,这些Shoppers实际是跨国公司的雇主,通过这个系统他们可以更客观地了解大学生的情况,有利于选拔人才,他们也会欢迎。而C与D相对而言,C可能取得的利益更大,应该更欢迎这个评价体系。因此,答案为C。

要确切地算出学生和纳税人花在大学上的钱能有多大的回报,这是个棘手的问题。总部位于巴黎的经济合作和发展组织是一家为富裕国家提供服务的智囊团机构,目前在计划建立第一个大学教学国际比较体系,希望借此可以让这个难题容易解决一些。
“我们不会认为一个大学投入的资金越多这个大学就越好,也不会用其他代理措施来评估质量,我们更注重学习的结果。”经济合作和发展组织教育研究主任Andreas Schleicher说道。就像经济合作和发展组织曾从每个国家随机抽取一些学生,测验他们的阅读和数学水平,从而评估该国的初级和中级教育水平一样,这次也会从大学生中取样来看他们的学习效果。如果有足够多的大学参与进来,就可以公布联合报表,评定每个国家的教育水平所处的档次,这就跟他们目前在义务教育方面所做的工作一样。这样得出的评判要比目前已有的两种评级方法更为公正,尽管英国的评级方法目前因广泛接受了学术界和雇主的意见,正在努力扩展自己的调查范围。
经济合作与发展组织的方法可圈可点之处还有很多。当然,诺贝尔奖得主关于应该在哪里学习的意见值得听取,但是大学教授们可能忙于写书或做研究,因此在教学方面投入的时间很少或几乎没有,这是美国名校的一大弱点。方法上的改变可以带来令人震惊的结果。比如说,抱负远大的伦敦经济学院在上周发行的英国评级结果中,由第17位滑落至第59位,这主要是因为相对于上一年度,该校在尽力争取大量的外国学生方面所得的分数减少了。
经济合作和发展组织准备等待1月份召开的教育部长会议的审批,并计划于2010年进行第一次评级。这些评级会赢得广泛的兴趣,不仅仅因为可以作为全球市场中雇主的指南,还因为在国内市场上也能充当业绩的指标。这样就可以帮助学术界决定,是否要原地不动还是应该进行一些改变,学生也可以选择在哪里投入自己的时间和金钱,还可以帮助雄心勃勃的大学校长增强本校的竞争力。
经济合作与发展组织进行的工作是艰难的。在像文学和历史这样的科目上,各个国家的课程大不相同,甚至连各个大学之间也大相径庭。但是经济合作与发展组织的研究者认为,可以主要关注雇主所重视的可转换的技术,比如批评性思考和分析,并只在那些有共同核心的领域(如经济和工程等)考查对该科目知识的掌握情况。
Schleicher还说,这是一项值得做的工作。他相信,目前的这些评级无助于政府评判给与大学用于教育学生的资金能否取得回报。学生们更喜欢一些有名气的学校,而忽略了二类学校,虽然这些学校在教学方面可能会更出众一些。更糟糕的是,根据名气来评级会让名校成绩下滑,而让那些充满活力的新兴学校处境艰难。“我们并不能反映一个大学的历史,”Schleicher先生说,“但是要问问自己:全球雇主所需要的是什么?”尽管不是每个学生的目标都是供职于一家跨国公司,但这是一个合理的问题。
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