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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 8 - TEXT ONE

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2019年02月03日

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Apple has long been known for luring the best talent the tech world can offer to its sumptuous Cupertino headquarters. Thousands of bright-eyed programming and design stars have passed through the storied doors. But where do you go from the top? Some of today's most popular sites and gadgets were spearheaded by Apple brainpower. And it makes sense. A tendency for market-changing innovation along with a taste for aesthetics and simplicity are often apparent in the outgoing employee's product. Apple veterans are behind such impressive ventures as LinkedIn, Android, and Mozilla. Is there a secret Apple magical ingredient that contributes to this unprecedented success?
Apple's alumni are an all-star cast, populating the boards and presidencies of many of Silicon Valley's most impressive companies. Andy Rubin, an early Apple engineer, founded Android, which was later bought by Google. LinkedIn founder Reid Hoffman was an Apple user experience architect in the nineties. Most recently, in 2010, iPod creator Tony Fadell launched Nest, a smart thermometer that adjusts to your living habits.
Leander Kahney, who runs the website Cult of Mac and has written three books about Apple, says there are strong hints of Fadell's background in his new creation. “People look at it and think it's just a thermometer, just a piece of hardware. But the lesson he's brought to it is that it's actually more software than hardware, and the same is true of the iPod.”
Evan Doll worked at Apple for six years as a software engineer before leaving to cofound the wildly popular news-aggregation app Flipboard. He says he owes a lot of the success he's had to his time spent at Apple, particularly the disciplined company mentality he adopted while there. “They manage to balance perfectionism with an extremely pragmatic attitude of ‘We've got to ship this out to the real world; we can't just sit here and polish it forever,’” he says. “Within startups there's no pressure telling you to finish it up and ship version 1.0. So you've got to have that discipline.”
Kahney compares the company's methodology to another industry giant—Google. At Google, he says, employees are encouraged to work on their own innovations within the company, while Apple employs more of a top-down structure. “Google has this internal entrepreneurial culture, wants its employees to act like entrepreneurs inside the company rather than leaving and doing it outside the company,” he says. The potential startup is kept under the Google banner, which benefits the company.
Doll sees the beneficial side of Apple's razor-sharp focus. “Folks at Apple understand that if everyone is marching at different levels all at once it's going to be very disjointed,” Doll says. “At a company like Google, that's almost overflowing with creativity; the downside is that there's new stuff coming out all the time and you're competing for a limited amount of attention on the part of your users.” That's not to say Apple employees are devoid of creativity. Quite the contrary, Doll says. No matter the department, everyone has some sort of artistic side. “You probably go to Burning Man or you built some sort of crazy art installations in your spare time,” he laughs.
Rather than let employees simply run with their own ideas, Apple has chosen a “less is better” attitude, constraint that proved a helpful lesson in discipline when Doll departed the company and encountered a challenge many startups face: a lack of resources. “Apple does a better job than most at saying no to ideas,” he says, which proved good training for his new venture. “If you say yes to every good idea that you have, you're going to fail.”
1. What does the word “veterans” (Line 5, Paragraph 1) mean in the text?
[A] founders
[B] freshmen
[C] soldiers
[D] stagers
2. The last two sentences of the fourth paragraph imply that _____.
[A] maybe we wouldn't see the success of Flipboard if Doll had no discipline
[B] Doll had no pressure during startups
[C] if Doll had no discipline, he might not have the impulsion to leave Apple and open a firm
[D] Doll could successfully create Flipboard because he had the discipline gained in Google
3. In Google, the most important feature that should be considered is most probably _____.
[A] creativity
[B] discipline
[C] competitiveness
[D] potentiality
4. Google's employees compete with others in order to _____.
[A] display their talents
[B] create more new stuffs
[C] draw the users' attention
[D] make people apply their creations
5. From Doll's statements, it can be inferred that he thinks _____.
[A] Apple's operation method is better than Google's
[B] for the benefit of Google, the internal startup should be kept under the Google banner
[C] the employees in Apple and Google all have some sort of artistic sides
[D] Apple doesn't always veto employees' ideas

1. What does the word “veterans” (Line 5, Paragraph 1) mean in the text?
[A] founders
[B] freshmen
[C] soldiers
[D] stagers
1. “veterans”这个词(第一段第五行)在文中是什么意思?
[A] 创始人
[B] 新手
[C] 士兵
[D] 经验丰富的人
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:猜词题。veteran一词原意为“老兵,退伍军人”,但在文中使用的是其比喻义,而非原意。因此,选项C为干扰选项。该词出现在原文中的句子为:Apple veterans are behind such impressive ventures as LinkedIn, Android, and Mozilla. 分析veterans一词的前后文可知,如此大胆的举措的背后一定有一些经验丰富的人,因此正确答案为选项D。选项A也比较有迷惑性,因为创始人对某项举措也很重要,但此处意在强调对这些举措有重要推动作用的人,故选项A不正确。
2. The last two sentences of the fourth paragraph imply that _____.
[A] maybe we wouldn't see the success of Flipboard if Doll had no discipline
[B] Doll had no pressure during startups
[C] if Doll had no discipline, he might not have the impulsion to leave Apple and open a firm
[D] Doll could successfully create Flipboard because he had the discipline gained in Google
2. 第四段最后两句话暗示了_____。
[A] 如果没有道欧的自律精神,我们可能就看不到Flipboard的成功
[B] 道欧在创业期间没有压力
[C] 如果没有自律精神,道欧可能不会有离开苹果去开公司的冲动
[D] 道欧之所以成功创造出Flipboard,是因为他在谷歌学到的自律精神
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆
分析:推理题。第四段最后两句话的意思是:在创业期间,没有压力要你一定得把工作完成并成功发行1.0版本,那么你就需要自律了。由此可以推断,道欧的成功正是因为他所具有的在苹果公司学到的自律精神。如果没有道欧的自律精神,可能就看不到Flipboard的成功了。因此,正确答案为选项A。
3. In Google, the most important feature that should be considered is most probably _____.
[A] creativity
[B] discipline
[C] competitiveness
[D] potentiality
3. 在谷歌,_____最有可能被认为是最重要的特质。
[A] 创造性
[B] 自律性
[C] 竞争性
[D] 潜能
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。纵观全文可以看出,谷歌有鼓励创新的氛围,所以他们最看重的也是创新性,因此正确答案为选项A。选项B中的“自律性”是苹果公司最看重的。选项C、D在文中都没有提及,不符合题意。因此,正确答案为选项A。
4. Google's employees compete with others in order to _____.
[A] display their talents
[B] create more new stuffs
[C] draw the users' attention
[D] make people apply their creations
4. 谷歌的员工与他人竞争的目的是_____。
[A] 展示他们的才华
[B] 创造更多新鲜玩意儿
[C] 吸引用户的关注
[D] 让人们使用他们的产品
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。文章第六段指出:在像谷歌这样的公司,创造性几乎无处不在,但不利的是,新玩意儿也层出不穷,你得为了获取用户有限的关注而进行竞争。根据这句话可知,员工竞争的最终目的是让人们使用他们的产品。因此,正确答案为选项D,其他三个选项虽然在竞争中都能体现,但不是最终目的,不符合题意。正确答案为D。
5. From Doll's statements, it can be inferred that he thinks _____.
[A] Apple's operation method is better than Google's
[B] for the benefit of Google, the internal startup should be kept under the Google banner
[C] the employees in Apple and Google all have some sort of artistic sides
[D] Apple doesn't always veto employees' ideas
5. 从Doll的话中可以推断出,他认为_____。
[A] 苹果的经营方式比谷歌的好
[B] 为了谷歌的利益,内部创业应在谷歌的名义下进行
[C] 苹果和谷歌的员工都或多或少有着艺术的一面
[D] 苹果不总是否定员工的想法
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章最后两段都涉及道欧的话。虽然道欧大部分的谈话都在说苹果好的地方,但是并没有说比谷歌好,排除A。选项B并不是道欧说的,考生应认真审题。在文中第六段道欧提到:这并不是说苹果的员工缺乏创造性。恰恰相反,无论哪个部门,每个人都或多或少有着艺术的一面。此处不可以偏概全,认为苹果和谷歌的员工都有艺术的一面,排除C。最后一段道欧讲道:比起大多数否定员工想法的公司,苹果已经做得很好了。从这句话中我们推断出苹果并不总是否定员工的想法。所以,正确答案选D。

众所周知,苹果一直在为其豪华的库比蒂诺总部吸纳科技领域的最佳人才。成千上万名神采奕奕的编程及设计明星走过了那里赫赫有名的大门。但是,已经处于顶峰的人要去往何处?当前一些最流行的网站和应用工具都是苹果智囊团率先开发的。而且这是合情合理的。即将离任的员工开发的产品中常会明显地倾向于伴随着审美和简洁风格的市场变革性创新。像邻客音、安卓以及谋智这样了不起的大胆举措背后都有着苹果公司资深人士的支持。对于这前所未有的成功,那神秘而奇妙的苹果因素是不是也是原因之一呢?
苹果公司校友可谓是众星云集,汇聚了硅谷中许多最为名声显赫的公司的董事长和总裁。安迪·罗宾,苹果早期工程师,开发了安卓系统,后来被谷歌收购。雷德·霍夫曼,邻客音的创始人,是90年代苹果用户体验工程师。在最近的2010年,iPod创始人托尼·法德尔推出了一款根据人类生活习惯调控温度的智能温度计Nest。
“苹果教”网站创始人利安德·卡尼,已经写了三本关于苹果公司的书。他说在法德尔的最新产品中,有着极强的个人背景的痕迹。“人们看到它,觉得它只是一个温度计,只是一件硬件设施。但是通过它,法德尔让人们知道了相较于硬件设施而言,它更是软件系统。对于iPod也是如此。”
伊万·道欧曾经是苹果的软件工程师,在那里工作六年之后,与人合作创办了广受欢迎的新闻聚合应用程序Flipboard。他说很多成就都应该归功于他在苹果那段时期所经历的,尤其是在那里感受到的公司的自律精神。“他们设法用一种非常实用主义的态度来平衡完美主义思想,那就是‘我们应该将其推向现实世界,不能老是坐在这儿改进它。’”他说,“在创业期间,没有压力要你一定得把工作完成并成功发行1.0版本,那么你就需要那种自律了。”
卡尼拿苹果公司经营方式与另一家行业巨头谷歌作比较。他说,谷歌鼓励员工在公司范围内按照自己的创新思想来工作,而苹果更多地采用自上而下的组织结构。“谷歌有这种内部创业的文化,希望员工能在公司内部而不是离开公司、在公司以外的地方创业,”他说。有条件的创业要在谷歌的名义下进行,这可以使公司从中获益。
道欧看到了苹果焦点突出的益处。“苹果人都知道,如果每一个人都在不同的层次上同时行事,公司将陷入混乱。”道欧说,“在像谷歌这样的公司,创造性几乎无处不在,但不利的是,新玩意儿也层出不穷,你得为了获取用户有限的关注而进行竞争。”这并不是说苹果的员工缺乏创造性。道欧说,恰恰相反。无论哪个部门,每个人都或多或少有着艺术的一面。“你可能会去火把节,或者在业余时间创作某种疯狂的艺术雕像,”他笑道。
苹果推崇用“越少越好”的态度来约束自己,而不是让员工仅仅按照自己的想法行事。当道欧离开公司,并遇到了许多创业者都要面临的挑战——资源短缺的时候,证明自律这门课还是有用的。他说,“比起大多数否定员工想法的公司,苹果已经做得很好了。”而这对他的新公司来说也是一个不错的教育。“如果你对每一个好的想法都表示赞同,那会失败的。”
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