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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 9 - TEXT TWO

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2019年02月05日

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On the face of things, a fall in the number of people infected with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) from 39.5m to 33.2m over the course of a single year, as reported in this year's AIDS epidemic update from the World Health Organisation (WHO) and UNAIDS, should be cause for rejoicing. Indeed, it is, for it means there are fewer people to treat, and fewer to pass the infection on, than was previously thought. But the fall is not a real fall. Rather, it is due to a change in the way the size of the epidemic is estimated.
If you factor in that change, the number of infected individuals has actually risen since last year, by 500,000. Yet even that is not necessarily bad news in the paradoxical world of AIDS. As treatment programmes are rolled out around the world, death rates are falling. According to the revised figures, the lethal peak, of 2.2m a year, was in 2005. Now the figure is 2.1m. Since the only way for an infected person to drop out of the statistics in reality (as opposed to by sleight of statistical hand) is for him to die, such increased survivorship inevitably pushes up the total size of the epidemic.
The best news of all, however, is that the new figures confirm what had previously been suspected—that the epidemic has peaked. The highest annual number of new infections around the world was 3.4m in 1998. That figure has now fallen to 2.5m.
Both the change in the death rate and the change in the infection rate are partly a consequence of the natural flow and ebb of any epidemic infection. But they are also a reflection of the hard graft of public-health workers in many countries, who have persuaded millions of people to modify or abandon risky behaviour, such as having unprotected sex, as they have also created the medical infrastructure needed to distribute anti-retroviral drugs that can keep symptoms at bay in those who do become infected.
The revision of the figures is mainly a result of better data-collection methods, particularly in India (which accounts for half the downward revision) and five African countries (which account for another fifth). In India many more sampling points have been established, and in all countries better survey methods, relying on surveyors knocking on doors rather than asking questions at clinics, have gathered data from more representative samples.
Sceptics will feel vindicated by the revision. They have suspected for a while that the older survey methods were biased, and that the inflation thus produced was tolerated because it helped twang the heart-strings of potential donors. However, the structures for collecting and distributing money to combat AIDS are now well established, and accurate data are crucial if that money is not to be misdirected. The new information also means that the goal of treatment for all who need it will be easier and cheaper to achieve. The WHO and UNAIDS are planning to publish a report on the matter early next year, but Paul De Lay, UNAIDS's director of evidence, monitoring and policy, says that the financial requirements for 2010 will probably be about 5% less than previously estimated, and that by 2015 that figure will have risen to 10%. Good news for everyone, then, donors and sufferers alike.
1. Though the number of infected individuals has risen, it is still worth rejoicing because _____.
[A] the number of people who are dying from AIDS has decreased
[B] the total size of the epidemic is shrinking in a significant extent
[C] it is only a rise in the sense of statistics, instead of a real number
[D] in the paradoxical world of AIDS bad news can turn out to be good news
2. About the changes in the death rate and the infection rate of HIV, which one of the following statements is NOT true?
[A] Any epidemic will naturally have such changes.
[B] They are mainly aroused by the new statistic methods.
[C] They clearly mirror of the essential achievements of public-health workers.
[D] The death rate has been greatly suppressed due to massive implementation of treatment programmes.
3. The word “vindicated” (Line 1, Paragraph 6) most probably means _____.
[A] confused
[B] clarified
[C] doubting
[D] annoyed
4. By 2015, the financial requirements will _____.
[A] have risen by 10% more than what have been previously estimated
[B] be 10% of what have been previously estimated
[C] be 10% less than previously estimated
[D] be 15% less than previously estimated
5. Towards the revision, the author's attitude can be said to be _____.
[A] negative
[B] positive
[C] indifferent
[D] neutral

1. Though the number of infected individuals has risen, it is still worth rejoicing because _____.
[A] the number of people who are dying from AIDS has decreased
[B] the total size of the epidemic is shrinking in a significant extent
[C] it is only a rise in the sense of statistics, instead of a real number
[D] in the paradoxical world of AIDS bad news can turn out to be good news
1. 尽管感染艾滋病的人数增加了,但是还是值得高兴,因为 _____。
[A] 死于艾滋病的人数减少了
[B] 这种传染病整体的规模大幅度下降了
[C] 这只是统计上的增加,而不是实际数目的增加
[D] 在是非颠倒的艾滋病世界中,坏消息也能变成好消息
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。本题针对的是文章的第一段和第二段。文章第二段提到,虽然感染的人数增加了,但并不是坏消息,因为随着全世界医疗水平的提高,艾滋病的死亡率下降了。这个上升的数据对应的是死亡人数的减少,因此,选项A符合题意。选项B显然是错误的,因为染病的人数还在增加,而下降的是增加的比率。选项C是对第一段“但这个数量的减少却不是真正的减少,而是因为估测该传染病规模的方法发生了改变”的误解。选项D是对第二段Yet even that is not necessarily bad news in the paradoxical world of AIDS的曲解,选项的表述过于绝对,而原文的语气没有这么肯定。
2. About the changes in the death rate and the infection rate of HIV, which one of the following statements is NOT true?
[A] Any epidemic will naturally have such changes.
[B] They are mainly aroused by the new statistic methods.
[C] They clearly mirror of the essential achievements of public-health workers.
[D] The death rate has been greatly suppressed due to massive implementation of treatment programmes.
2. 关于HIV死亡率和感染率的变化,下列哪个选项是错误的?
[A] 任何传染病都会很自然地发生这样的变化。
[B] 这些变化主要是由新的统计方法造成的。
[C] 这些变化清楚地反映了公共卫生工作者的重要成绩。
[D] 由于大规模地实施了各种治疗方案,因此死亡率得到了极大的控制。
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。选项A,第四段提到,死亡率和感染率发生变化的部分原因在于每种传染病都会有这种自然的起伏。选项B,第五段提到,数据的变化主要是由于采用了更好的数据收集方法,而不是统计方法,因此B是错误的。选项C,第四段提到了这一点。选项D,第二段提到,随着全世界治疗方案的大量出现,死亡率开始有所下降,因此D是正确的。那么,选项B是正确答案。
3. The word “vindicated” (Line 1, Paragraph 6) most probably means _____.
[A] confused
[B] clarified
[C] doubting
[D] annoyed
3. vindicated这个词(第六段第一行)最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 迷惑的
[B] 澄清的
[C] 怀疑的
[D] 懊恼的
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:猜词题。在第六段中,根据上下文,持怀疑态度者最开始怀疑旧的调查方法有偏颇,但是现在新的数据收集方法比较先进、科学,与之前的数据有所出入,因此他们的疑虑就应该打消了。因此,选项B最为符合题意。
4. By 2015, the financial requirements will _____.
[A] have risen by 10% more than what have been previously estimated
[B] be 10% of what have been previously estimated
[C] be 10% less than previously estimated
[D] be 15% less than previously estimated
4. 到2015年,财政需求将会 _____。
[A] 比先前估计的增加10%
[B] 是先前估计的10%
[C] 比先前估计的减少10%
[D] 比先前估计的减少15%
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆
分析:细节题。第六段指出,到2010年,财政需求可能要比先前估计的少 5%,而到2015年,这个数字将增加到10%。那么也就是说,到了2015年,财政需求要比先前估计的少10%。因此,选项C为正确答案。
5. Towards the revision of the figures, the author's attitude can be said to be _____.
[A] negative
[B] positive
[C] indifferent
[D] neutral
5. 对于这次数据修改,作者的态度是 _____。
[A] 否定的
[B] 肯定的
[C] 不关心的
[D] 中立的
答案:B 难度系数:☆
分析:态度题。对于这次修改,作者在全文中多次用了赞扬的语气,描述这样改变的好处,因此,作者的态度是肯定的,正确答案为B。

由世界卫生组织和联合国艾滋病规划署报告的本年度有关艾滋病的最新数据表明,在短短一年的时间内,感染HIV(引发艾滋病的病毒)的人数从3,950万人减少到3,320万人,表面上来看这确实令人欣喜。实际上也确实如此,因为这意味着需要治疗的人和传播疾病的人比原来估计的要少。但这个数量的减少却不是真正的减少,而是因为估测该传染病规模的方法发生了改变。
如果将这种改变考虑进来,那么被感染的人数实际上比去年增加了50万。但是即便如此,这对于是非颠倒的艾滋病世界来说也不一定是坏消息。随着全世界治疗方案的大量出现,死亡率开始有所下降。根据修改后的统计数据,死亡高峰出现在2005年,这一年有220万人死亡。现在这个数字为210万。因为受感染的患者要想真正退出统计数字(而不是通过在数据统计办法上做手脚),唯一的方法就是死亡,存活患者人数的增加免不了会增加感染者的总数。
但是最好的消息就是,新数据肯定了先前被怀疑的事实——感染人数的最高点已经过去。1998年,新增感染者的总人数为340万人,是最高值,现在降到250万人。
死亡率和感染率的变化部分是由于每一种传染病都存在的自然起落规律。但是也反映了许多国家的公共卫生工作者的艰苦努力,他们成功地说服了成百上千万的人们改变或者放弃危险的行为,如没有任何保护措施的性行为,他们还建立了医疗基础措施来发放反逆转药物,这种药物可以让那些已经被感染的患者的症状消失。
修改数据主要是因为采用了更好的数据收集方法,特别是在印度(该数据的下降有一半是因为印度数据的改变)和五个非洲国家(另有1/5的数据下降是因为这些国家)。印度建立了更多的取样点,而所有国家都采用了更好的调查方法,主要依靠上门调查而不是在诊所询问问题,这样收集到了更具代表性的病例数据。
持怀疑态度的人会因为数据修改而证实了他们先前的怀疑。他们曾怀疑过去的调查方法有一定的偏颇,由此导致的数据增加也是在容许的范围内,因为这样就可以使许多潜在的捐赠人动心。但是,现在为抗击艾滋病建立了收集和发放资金的结构,如果想要正确使用这些资金,那么准确的数据是非常重要的。新信息也意味着治疗所有患者这个目标实现起来会更简单、更廉价。世界卫生组织和联合国艾滋病规划署目前计划在明年年初发布一个相关的报告,但是联合国艾滋病规划署取证、监测和政策主任Paul De Lay称,2010年的财政需求可能要比先前预计的少约5%,到2015年,该数字将达到10%。这对于那时的每个人,不管是捐献者还是患者来说都是好消息。
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