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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 13 - TEXT THREE

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2019年02月11日

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For most of his life Chuck Feeney has guarded his privacy obsessively. When he became a philanthropist, his gifts came on condition that his name never appeared on any press release or plaque; all donations would cease if confidentiality was breached. But when he decided to co-operate with Conor O'Clery on this book, many of the people in his life, released from their Trappist vows, let themselves go. The result is gripping.
An Irish-American, born in New Jersey in 1931, Mr. Feeney made a fortune by co-founding Duty Free Shoppers (DFS) which first sold tax-exempt goods to American soldiers abroad and then tapped into the rise of mass tourism. When DFS was sold in 1997, it had delivered nearly $8 billion to its four main shareholders, of which Mr. Feeney was the joint biggest, with 38.75% .
Tax avoidance is the flip side to Mr. Feeney's philanthropic coin. He is addicted to it. “Chuck hates taxes. He believes people can do more with money than governments can,” says a friend. In 1964 a young New York lawyer, Harvey Dale, told Mr. Feeney that changes in the tax laws threatened his business, which was running risks that could put the founders in jail. On his advice, Mr. Feeney and his co-founder, Robert Miller, transferred ownership to their foreign-born wives, from France and Ecuador, respectively. In 1974, through a deal with the American government, the firm turned the Pacific island of Saipan into a tax haven. Then, in 1978, Mr. Feeney grouped his various investments, including his shares of DFS, in a holding company, General Atlantic Group Limited, in tax-free Bermuda. To escape the American taxman, everything was still registered in his wife's name.
Mr. Feeney carefully shunned all outward evidence of wealth. But as soon as DFS became reliably profitable, he started the practice of giving 5% of his pre-tax profits to good causes. In 1982 he created a foundation, the Atlantic Philanthropies, based in Bermuda. Two years later he signed over his fortune to the foundation, except for sums set aside for his wife and children. His net worth fell below $5m. When he broke the news to his children, he gave them each a copy of Andrew Carnegie's essay on wealth, written in 1889.
Mr. Feeney has given his alma mater, Cornell University, more than $600m, dwarfing all other donations from a single alumnus to an American university. He has contributed hundreds of millions of dollars towards higher education in Ireland, South Africa and Australia. He has helped with health care in Vietnam. In 2004 he went to Cuba, where he met Fidel Castro, who seemed only too happy to accept his capitalist-tax-avoided dollars. But it was his support for the Irish peace process that caused the most controversy, including accusations (without foundation, it turned out) that he had financed the IRA.
Mr. Feeney is committed to giving away all the money in his foundation by a fixed date—thought to be in about ten years—but his investment prowess makes this difficult. Currently, Atlantic Philanthropies is worth $4 billion (up from $3.5 billion in 2001) even though, over its lifetime, it has given away about $4 billion in increasing amounts. The trouble for Mr. Feeney is that the foundation's assets are growing as fast as he tries to get rid of them.
1. When Chuck decided to co-operate with Conor O'Clery on this book, many of the people in his life _____.
[A] left Chuck for ever
[B] broke their previous promises of maintaining confidentiality
[C] talked about what they knew about Chuck
[D] felt surprised and then disappointed about Chuck
2. Mr. Feeney was dedicated to avoiding tax because _____.
[A] he wanted to make more money
[B] he wanted to give more money to good causes
[C] he thought the government was corrupted
[D] he thought people could manage the society with their own money by themselves
3. Pacific island of Saipan _____ through a deal with the American government in 1974.
[A] made favorable tax policy for Mr. Feeney's firm
[B] established a branch of DFS
[C] became a tax-free place
[D] became a heaven for tax-free business
4. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of Mr. Feeney's charity activities?
[A] He made huge donations to Cornell University.
[B] He contributed money to higher education.
[C] He supported the health care in Vietnam.
[D] He financed the IRA for the Irish peace process.
5. It is difficult for Mr. Feeney to give away all the money in his foundation in about ten years since _____.
[A] he has made too much investment elsewhere to take back the money
[B] the foundation's assets are increasing too fast to be completely given away
[C] he has trouble in finding reliable means to donate all the money
[D] ten years is too long for him to give away all the money

1. When Chuck decided to co-operate with Conor O'Clery on this book, many of the people in his life _____.
[A] left Chuck for ever
[B] broke their previous promises of maintaining confiden-tiality
[C] talked about what they knew about Chuck
[D] felt surprised and then disappointed about Chuck
1. 当Chuck决定和Conor O'Clery合作撰写这本书时,他周围的许多人 _____。
[A] 永远离开了Chuck
[B] 打破了自己曾经许下的保密诺言
[C] 谈论他们所知道的Chuck
[D] 对Chuck先是感到惊讶,然后是失望
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。第一段提到Chuck一直在保护自己的隐私,但提到合作写这本书时用了转折词,由此可以推断这次他并没有缄口,他周围的许多人也因此可以随意谈论他们所知道的Chunk。选项C符合题意。选项A和D是明显错误的,而选项B是一个较强的干扰选项,其错误在于,这些人不是打破了自己的诺言,而是现在已经没有必要再遵守诺言了,因此连Chunk自己都已经开金口了。
2. Mr. Feeney was dedicated to avoiding tax because _____.
[A] he wanted to make more money
[B] he wanted to give more money to good causes
[C] he thought the government was corrupted
[D] he thought people could manage the society with their own money by themselves
2. Feeney先生竭力避税,是因为 _____。
[A] 他想要赚更多的钱
[B] 他想要将更多的钱投入公益事业
[C] 他认为政府是腐败的
[D] 他认为人们可以用自己的钱自己来管理社会
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。第三段提到,Feeney先生对免税上了瘾,因为他认为人们用钱可以比政府办更多的事情,因此,选项D最为符合题意。C,作者并未提到政府腐败,只是提到人们用钱可以比政府办更多的事情。
3. Pacific island of Saipan _____ through a deal with the American government in 1974.
[A] made favorable tax policy for Mr. Feeney's firm
[B] established a branch of DFS
[C] became a tax-free place
[D] became a heaven for tax-free business
3. 通过和美国政府于1974年达成的一个协议,太平洋 上的塞班岛 _____。
[A] 为Feeney先生的公司制定了有利的税收政策
[B] 建立了其免税店的一个分店
[C] 成为免税的地方
[D] 成为免税商业活动的天堂
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第三段提到,Feeney先生为了避免法律的麻烦,把免税店转到了妻子名下,而后来又同美国政府达成协议,把塞班岛变成了一个“税收避难所”,也就是免税的地方。选项C为正确答案。选项A是错误的,因为塞班岛成为免税的地方是通过同美国政府达成的协议实现的,并没有专门为Feeney先生的公司制定政策。选项B显然是错误的,因为不仅仅是开一个免税店的分店那么简单,而是整个岛都变成了免税的地方。选项D有一定的干扰性,虽然小岛上都是免税的,但是没有证据表明它成为了免税商业活动的天堂。
4. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of Mr. Feeney's charity activities?
[A] He made huge donations to Cornell University.
[B] He contributed money to higher education.
[C] He supported the health care in Vietnam.
[D] He financed the IRA for the Irish peace process.
4. 关于Feeney先生的慈善行为,下列哪个陈述是错误的?
[A] 他为康奈尔大学捐献了巨额款项。
[B] 他为高等教育捐资。
[C] 他资助越南的卫生事业。
[D] 他因为爱尔兰的和平进程而资助了爱尔兰共和军。
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。选项A、B和C在文章第五段中都有所涉及,即“Feeney先生捐给自己的母校康奈尔大学的资金达六亿多美元,这个数额超过了美国所有大学毕业生个人捐款的总额。他还捐献了几亿美元用于爱尔兰、南非和澳大利亚的高等教育。此外,他也资助了越南的卫生保健事业。2004年,他来到古巴,在那里会见了菲德尔·卡斯特罗,卡斯特罗非常高兴,但并未接受Feeney先生通过避税得来的钱”。选项D,他资助了爱尔兰的和平进程,但是文章指出,说他资助了爱尔兰共和军是没有根据的。因此,选项D为正确答案。
5. It is difficult for Mr Feeney to give away all the money in his foundation in about ten years since _____.
[A] he has made too much investment elsewhere to take back the money
[B] the foundation's assets are increasing too fast to be completely given away
[C] he has trouble in finding reliable means to donate all the money
[D] ten years is too long for him to give away all the money
5. Feeney先生要在10年内将自己基金会的所有资产捐出,这有一定的难度,是因为 _____。
[A] 他在其他地方投资太多,无法把钱收回来
[B] 该基金会的资产增长过快,不能及时全部捐出
[C] 他在寻找可靠的捐钱途径方面碰到了问题
[D] 10年对于他捐出所有的资产来说太长了
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。文章最后一段提到,他的投资能力不断增加,基金会的资产也不断增加,所以要把钱全部捐出去还是个困难。因此选项B是符合这个意思的。其他三个选项都与文章内容无关,属于无中生有。

Chuck Feeney在一生的大部分时间里,都竭尽全力保护自己的私生活不受干扰。在成为一个慈善家后,他在捐赠时提出的条件就是,自己的名字不能出现在任何新闻稿或匾额上。如果违反了这种机密约定,他就会终止捐赠。但是当他决定要和Conor O'Clery合作写本书时,他周围的许多人都得以打破缄口的誓言,从而可以畅所欲言了。这个结果真是够吸引人的。
Feeney先生是一位美籍爱尔兰人,1931年出生在新泽西州。他和人共同创办了免税店而发了大财,该免税店最开始是向那些在国外的美国士兵出售免税商品。后来随着旅游者的增多,其业务也转向了他们。1997年卖掉免税店时,四个大股东得到了近80亿美元,而Feeney是最大的股东,他占有的份额为38.75%。
免税只是Feeney先生慈善事业的另一面而已。他甚至对免税上了瘾。“Chuck憎恨税收。他认为人们用钱可以比政府能办更多的事情。”他的一位朋友说。1964年,一位年轻的纽约律师Harvey Dale告诉Feeney先生,税收法的改革会威胁到他的生意,甚至可能会让这些创办者们锒铛入狱。在他的建议下,Feeney和他的合伙人Robert Miller将免税店的所有权移交给了他们分别出生在法国和厄瓜多尔的妻子。1974年,通过与美国政府达成的一项协议,公司将位于太平洋上的塞班岛变成了一个免税的地方。1978年,Feeney先生把自己的各种投资都集合起来,包括他在免税店的股份,然后投进了一家在不收税的百慕大群岛成立的控股公司——通用大西洋有限公司。为了躲避美国的收税员,所有公司仍旧以他妻子的名义注册。
Feeney先生小心地抹去了自己财产的所有表面证据。但是当他确定免税店已经赢利的时候,他开始将自己税前利润的5%用于慈善事业。1982年,他创立了一个基金会——大西洋慈善事业,总部设在百慕大。两年后,他自己的财产转到该基金会,只留了一些给妻子和孩子。他的净资产从而降到了500万美元以下。当他告诉孩子们这个消息时,他送给每个孩子一篇卡耐基于1889年写的关于财富的文章。
Feeney先生捐给自己的母校康奈尔大学的资金达六亿多美元,这个数额超过了美国所有大学毕业生个人捐款的总额。他还捐献了几亿美元用于爱尔兰、南非和澳大利亚的高等教育。此外,他也资助了越南的卫生保健事业。2004年,他来到古巴,在那里会见了菲德尔·卡斯特罗,卡斯特罗非常高兴,但并未接受Feeney先生通过避税得来的钱。但是正是由于他对爱尔兰和平运动的支持,才引发了最大的争议,人们指责他资助了爱尔兰共和军(事实上毫无根据)。
Feeney先生致力于在某一固定日期前把所有财产投入其基金会(可能会在大约10年以后),但是他的投资能力却为这项任务增加了困难。目前,“大西洋慈善”价值40亿美元(而在2001年只有35亿),这是在已经累计捐出了40亿美元之后的数字。Feeney目前面临的问题是,基金会资产增长的速度和他捐钱的速度几乎是齐头并进的。
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