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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 14 - TEXT THREE

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2019年02月12日

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In the 1990s New York City's success in cutting crime became a model for America and the world. Innovative policing methods, guided by the “broken windows” philosophy of cracking down on minor offences to encourage a culture of lawfulness, showed that a seemingly hopeless situation could be turned around. It made the name of the mayor, Rudy Giuliani, now a presidential aspirant.
Hopeless is how many people feel about America's government-funded public schools, particularly in the dodgier parts of big cities, where graduation rates are shockingly low and many fail to achieve basic levels of literacy and numeracy. As with urban crime, failing urban schools are preoccupying countries the world over. And just as New York pointed the way on fighting crime, under another mayor, Michael Bloomberg, it is now emerging as a model for school reform.
On November 5th Mr. Bloomberg announced a new “report card” for the city's schools, designed to make them accountable for their performance. The highest-graded schools will get an increased budget and perhaps a bonus for the principal. Schools that fail will not be tolerated: unless their performance improves, their principals will be fired, and if that does not do the trick, they will be closed. This is the culmination of a series of reforms that began when Mr. Bloomberg campaigned for, and won, direct control of the school system after becoming mayor in 2002. Even before the “report cards”, there have been impressive signs of improvement, including higher test scores and better graduation rates.
Mr. Bloomberg has not been as brave with schools as Mr. Giuliani was with crime. Oddly given his belief in competition, the former media mogul shunned the most radical option—vouchers that allow parents to shop around beyond the public-schools system for their children's education. On the other hand, even supporters of school choice, like this newspaper, have to admit it is proving hard to sell. Nor has Mr. Bloomberg made a big push to introduce large numbers of independent charter schools as exist, say, in Los Angeles.
Against this, Mr. Bloomberg has provided an example of what a mayor with control of schools can do even without embracing such controversial ideas. He has avoided inflammatory political terms—“merit pay” and “vouchers” are red rags to teachers' unions. Instead, by using the carrot of pay rises to extract performance concessions from principals and teachers, and by persuading philanthropists such as Bill Gates to pay for innovations that might be hard to sell to the public if the public had to pay for them, he has put in place a system based on transparency, accountability and competition that he hopes will achieve much the same effect.
Will it? A lot will depend on whether Mr. Bloomberg's actions continue to match his tough talk. Unless bad schools are indeed closed, his scheme will be as much good as a blackboard with no chalk. But there are some parallels with Mr. Giuliani's crime reforms. For the New York Police Department's giant CompStat database, which provided useful insight into crime patterns, read a new schools information system for students, parents, teachers and schools administrators designed by IBM. For the concept of making precinct police captains personally accountable for reducing crime, read the grading of schools and firing of failing principals.
1. Which one of the following actions may be carried out according to the “broken windows” philosophy?
[A] The police work hard on hopeless offences to create a lawful culture.
[B] The police make the punishment harsher for all kinds of crime.
[C] People are encouraged to give an immediate report about the crime nearby.
[D] Burglars are given a severe punishment.
2. The poor performance of America's government-funded public schools in big cities is most probably due to _____.
[A] a rampant growth of the urban crime
[B] low rate of graduation and student literacy
[C] the poor management of the schools in terms of teaching method and teacher qualification
[D] certain reasons which are not mentioned in the passage
3. Which one of the following is TRUE of Mr. Bloomberg's reform on public schools?
[A] He was encouraged to establish a transparent and accountable system without controversial ideas.
[B] He was intentionally copying Mr. Giuliani's models in most aspects.
[C] He was moderate in taking measures to change the schools system.
[D] He adopted measures that were difficult for people to understand.
4. The phrase “red rag” (Line 3, Paragraph 5) most probably means _____.
[A] the bottom line
[B] controversial ideas
[C] irritative factors
[D] sensitive topics
5. Mr. Bloomberg's scheme is compared to a blackboard with no chalk because _____.
[A] his scheme is only empty talk
[B] his scheme has not been implemented
[C] his scheme sounds too good to be true
[D] his scheme awaits to be rectified

1. Which one of the following actions may be carried out according to the “broken windows” philosophy?
[A] The police work hard on hopeless offenses to create a lawful culture.
[B] The police make the punishment harsher for all kinds of crime.
[C] People are encouraged to give an immediate report about the crime nearby.
[D] Burglars are given a severe punishment.
1. 下列哪个行动是根据“破窗”法则实施的?
[A] 警察努力工作解决那些看起来没有希望破获的犯罪案例,以创造一个法治的文化。
[B] 警察对所有形式的犯罪采取更为严厉的惩戒办法。
[C] 鼓励人们看到周围的犯罪行为后马上报告。
[D] 给夜盗以严厉的惩罚。
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推力题。本题的关键在于理解“破窗”法则的含义,文章第一段提到,该法则就是严厉打击小的犯罪,从而营造一种遵纪守法的文化。那么,这四个选项中,只有选项D是严厉打击小犯罪活动的,因此是正确答案。选项A具有较强的干扰性,所谓hopeless offenses并不仅仅指小型犯罪活动,因此该选项错误。选项B的错误也是由于同样的原因,因为所针对的不是所有形式的犯罪。选项C则与题干的意思无关。
2. The poor performance of America's government-funded public schools in big cities is most probably due to _____.
[A] a rampant growth of the urban crime
[B] low rate of graduation and student literacy
[C] the poor management of the schools in terms of teaching method and teacher qualification
[D] certain reasons which are not mentioned in the passage
2. 美国政府资助的大城市中的公立学校成绩不佳的原因最有可能是 _____。
[A] 城市犯罪猖獗
[B] 学生毕业率低、识字率低
[C] 由于教学方法差和教师素质低而导致的学校管理较差
[D] 文章中没有提到的某些原因
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。纵观全文,其实文章中对于公立学校成绩差的原因并没有说明,而是着重讲述改革的方法。因此,答案为D,而其他三个选项均是干扰选项。
3. Which one of the following is TURE of Mr. Bloomberg's reform on public schools?
[A] He was encouraged to establish a transparent and accountable system without controversial ideas.
[B] He was intentionally copying Mr. Giuliani's models in most aspects.
[C] He was moderate in taking measures to change the schools system.
[D] He adopted measures that were difficult for people to understand.
3. 关于Bloomberg对于公立学校的改革,下列哪个选项是正确的?
[A] 他鼓励建立一个透明和负责的没有争议的系统。
[B] 在大多数方面他有意模仿Giuliani先生的模式。
[C] 他在采取改革学校系统的措施方面比较温和。
[D] 他采取了一些人们难以理解的措施。
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。选项A,第五段末尾提到“Bloomberg已经通过这些方法将这个基于透明、责任心和竞争力的体系安置妥当了”,然而该段开头也提到了“Bloomberg先生用自己的行动证明了,即使不采取这些有争议的方法”,这说明其实他的方法是存在争议的,由此可见该陈述错误。选项B,文章最后一段虽然提到他们两个的改革有相似之处,但也仅限于两点,而且也不一定是Bloomberg先生故意模仿。选项C,第四段提到,Bloomberg先生改革学校的勇气比不上Giuliani先生打击犯罪改革的勇气,可见他的风格并不激进和大胆,后面又提到他避免有争议的做法,而选择了更为稳妥的方案。因此,可以看出他比较稳健,该陈述正确;选项D,这点文章中没有提及。因此,选项C为正确答案。
4. The phrase “red rag” (Line 3, Paragraph 5) most probably means _____.
[A] the bottom line
[B] controversial ideas
[C] irritative factors
[D] sensitive topics
4. red rag这个短语(第五段第三行)最有可能的意思为 _____。
[A] 底线
[B] 有争议的想法
[C] 引人发怒的因素
[D] 引人发怒的因素
答案:C 难度系数:☆
分析:推理题。第五段提到,Bloomberg先生没有采取“活动付酬”和“书面证书”;由上一段可以看出,“书面证书”会让家长选择公立学校之外的教育资源,这样公立学校的老师就要面对巨大的压力,那么教师肯定对此采取一种反抗态度,因此,选项C最为符合这个意思。
5. Mr. Bloomberg's scheme is compared to a blackboard with no chalk because _____.
[A] his scheme is only empty talk
[B] his scheme has not been implemented
[C] his scheme sounds too good to be true
[D] his scheme awaits to be rectified
5. Bloomberg的方案被比作没写粉笔字的黑板,这是因为 _____。
[A] 他的方案只是空谈
[B] 他的方案还没被实施
[C] 他的方案太好了,以至于听起来不像是真的
[D] 他的方案等待被核准
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章最后一段提到,这些能否实现关键在于Bloomberg先生的行动是否和诺言一致,目前看来是好的,因为只是计划,还未落实,好比没有写字的黑板一样,一切都有待书写。因此,选项B最为符合题意。

20世纪90年代,纽约市成功地降低了犯罪率,成为美国和世界的榜样。新型的治安方法以“破窗”法则为指导,严厉打击小规模犯罪行为,鼓励遵纪守法的文化,这说明看起来没有希望的情形仍可以被扭转过来。这一成就使得纽约市市长Rudy Giuliani一举成名,现在他是总统候选人。
许多人对于美国政府资助的公立学校都感到失望,特别是大城市中较难管理的地方,那里的毕业率惊人的低,许多学生连最低的读写和算术水平都达不到。和城市犯罪一样,不成功的城市学校问题也困扰着世界上的许多国家。正当纽约提出打击犯罪的新主张的时候,在另一任市长Michael Bloomberg的领导下,纽约正日益成为学校改革的模范。
11月5日,Bllomberg宣布,该市学校中使用一种新的“声誉卡”,以促使学校为自己的表现负责。获得最高分的学校可以获得更多的经费,甚至校长也会有奖金。而那些表现不佳的学校就不能再放任自流了,除非其表现有所改进,否则校长就要被解雇。如果还不能奏效,那么学校就得关门。2002年Bloomberg先生担任市长后,通过努力赢得了对学校系统的直接监控权,自此开始了一系列改革,而这次算是达到了顶点。在“声誉卡”措施实施之前,学校就有显著进步的迹象,比如考试分数有所提高,毕业率也上升了。
Bloomberg先生在学校改革方面的勇气还比不上Giuliani先生在打击犯罪改革方面的勇气。他对竞争很有信心,但这位前媒体大亨却避开最激进的选择,即发放教育权,允许家长在公立学校系统之外给孩子们选择教育资源。另一方面,即使是像本报这样的择校支持者也得承认,出售这种教育权很难。而Bloomberg也没有大力引进洛杉矶现有的大量独立特许学校的模式。
对于这些,Bloomberg先生用自己的行动证明了,即使不采取这些有争议的方法,一个对学校拥有控制权的市长都可以做些什么。他没有使用那些有煽动性的政治词语,如“活动付酬”和“书面证书”,这些都会激怒教师协会。相反,可以使用增加工资的方法来使校长和老师之间妥协,对于那些需要公众付费才能使用而一般难有销路的发明创造,就可以说服像比尔·盖茨那样的慈善来家埋单,Bloomberg已经通过这些方法将这个基于透明、责任心和竞争力的体系安置妥当了,可望达到同样的效果。
那么这能实现吗?主要还得取决于Bloomberg先生的行动能否和他坚决的诺言一致。除非糟糕的学校真的关了门,否则他的计划就像是没写粉笔字的黑板一样,看起来永远都那么好。但是也有与Giuliani先生打击犯罪改革相似的地方。纽约警察总局的大型ComStat数据库曾在犯罪类型方面提供了有价值的见解,而由IBM设计的为学生、家长、老师和学校管理者服务的全新学校信息系统也已经开始运行了。让地区警官亲自负责降低犯罪率的理念,同样也运用到了为学校评分和辞退表现不好的校长上。
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