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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 16 - TEXT FOUR

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2019年02月15日

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Although close relationships are often wellsprings of health-enhancing support, accumulating evidence indicates that persistent domestic conflict deals a blow to the body—and especially the heart. In one of the latest studies, researchers found that British adults who were in adverse close relationships were 34 percent more likely to suffer coronary problems, ranging from chest pain to deadly heart attacks, than those who weren't. Numerous American studies have produced similar findings. Last year, for example, a long-term analysis of more than 1,000 marriages found that strained matrimonies take a clear toll on physical health over time, hitting the elderly the hardest.
Negativity-plagued relationships are toxic in part because of the effects of chronic stress, says Sheldon Cohen, a Carnegie Mellon University psychologist. In addition to damaging the heart, ongoing stress can deplete the immune system—creating openings for colds, cancers, and other maladies—and also lead to depression and risky coping behaviors like excessive drinking.
People who endure persistent interpersonal problems are more at risk than those reeling from an isolated blowup, Cohen says. But spouses aren't the only potential source of unrelenting trouble. In the recent British study, 20 percent of adults identified someone other than a romantic partner as the object of their closest relationship, according to the report in the October 8 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine.
Fortunately, strategies for minimizing feuds within the family are similar to those that can resolve conflicts with in-laws, coworkers, neighbors, and others, says Redford Williams, a behavioral scientist at Duke University. One technique he recommends is this: Before lashing someone with a sharp-tongued comment, step back and evaluate a brewing dispute. Say it's your turn to host the annual holiday family feast. Frazzled, juggling food prep for 20 people with a maniacal effort to scrub everything clean, you finally feel pleased by your home's facelift. Then the doorbell rings. In strides your 84-year-old aunt, craning her neck to eyeball the surroundings. “Well, you certainly don't pay much attention to keeping your house tidy,” she barks, flinging her coat over your outstretched arms. “If we did what came naturally, we'd either explode or keep fuming for the rest of the day,” Williams says. Instead, he suggests, ask yourself four questions: Is this situation important?
After years studying the strain hostility and anger place on the heart, he and his wife, also a doctor, have developed a system called Williams LifeSkills. A 2005 study found that when people with heart disease used Williams's techniques, their anger levels, average blood pressure, and blood pressure elevation when angry all went down; their depression and anxiety diminished; and they reported being more satisfied with family and friends.
Nevertheless, the holidays tend to strap everyone with a little extra stress, so make an effort to be on your best behavior, especially if you're prone to conflict, says Williams. But if family fighting's become an annual theme, there might be something wrong.
Not all conflict is bad, according to Harvard University lecturer Tal Ben-Shahar, author of the new book Happier: Learn the Secrets to Daily Joy and Lasting Fulfillment. “Negativity is normal, as long as it's outweighed by positivity,” he says. “No negativity at all is actually a bad sign” that people may be avoiding serious issues.
1. From the first paragraph, it can be inferred that _____.
[A] close relationship between matrimonies is a double-edged sword
[B] adverse close relationship leads to high risk of coronary problems
[C] strained relationship within family will cut short one's normal span of life
[D] numerous studies have proved the devastating effect of close relationship
2. Negative close relationship may lead to the following diseases except _____.
[A] coronary problems
[B] immune system disorder
[C] psychosis
[D] depression and anxiety
3. By the technique recommended by Redford Williams, the author implies that _____.
[A] one should be reasonable so as to keep good relationship with intimate partners
[B] one should divert oneself from the furious state so as to minimize family conflicts
[C] it is not so difficult to lessen the conflicts within the family
[D] you'd better think the other way when potential conflict is under your nose
4. The strategy for minimizing conflicts in the family suggested by Redford Williams is that _____.
[A] people should undertake housework on one's own
[B] people should choose a brewing dispute rather than a sharp-tongued comment
[C] people should weigh if it is worth of having a feud
[D] people should learn to hold their anger when something unpleasant happens
5. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of Tal Ben-Shahar's opinions on family conflict?
[A] Family conflict is necessary for maintaining the positivity in close relationship.
[B] Lack of family conflict will make people void of serious issues.
[C] Negativity in close relationship can indeed improve the relationship positively.
[D] Modest family conflict will do little harm to close relationship.

1. From the first paragraph, it can be inferred that _____.
[A] close relationship between matrimonies is a double-edged sword
[B] adverse close relationship leads to high risk of coronary problems
[C] strained relationship within family will cut short one's normal span of life
[D] numerous studies have proved the devastating effect of close relationship
1. 从第一段可以推断出 _____。
[A] 婚姻关系中的亲密关系是一把双刃剑
[B] 亲人之间的敌对关系能导致患心脏病的高风险
[C] 紧张的家庭关系会缩短人的正常寿命
[D] 很多研究都证明了亲密关系的破坏性影响
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。第一段提到,糟糕的家庭关系会有损人的健康,但是好的亲密关系是健康的源泉。那么选项A是正确的表述。选项B在文章中有相应的论述,指出糟糕的关系会影响人的健康,但是该选项的表述过于绝对——糟糕的关系和心脏病之间的关系并不是绝对的,风险只高出34%。选项C,提到了糟糕的关系会影响人的健康,但并未明确提到是减少寿命。选项D的表述是错误的,其破坏性影响的不是亲密关系,而是糟糕的关系。因此,只有选项A是正确的。
2. Negative close relationship may lead to the following diseases except _____.
[A] coronary problems
[B] immune system disorder
[C] psychosis
[D] depression and anxiety
2. 糟糕的关系可能引发下列除 _____ 外的疾病。
[A] 心脏病
[B] 免疫系统疾病
[C] 精神病
[D] 抑郁和焦虑
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第二段提到:Negativity-plagued relationships are toxic in part because of the effects of chronic stress, says Sheldon Cohen, a Carnegie Mellon University psychologist. In addition to damaging the heart, ongoing stress can deplete the immune system—creating openings for colds, cancers, and other maladies—and also lead to depression and risky coping behaviors like excessive drinking. 显然,选项A、B和C都符合这一段中说明的各种疾病,只有选项D,文章中没有提到焦虑,因此D是正确答案。
3. By the technique recommended by Redford Williams, the author implies that _____.
[A] one should be reasonable so as to keep good relationship with intimate partners
[B] one should divert oneself from the furious state so as to minimize family conflicts
[C] it is not so difficult to lessen the conflicts within the family
[D] you'd better think the other way when potential conflict is under your nose
3. 作者提到Redford Williams推荐的方法,作者想要表明的是 _____。
[A] 人们应当保持理智,以便与亲密的人维持好的关系
[B] 人们应当将自己从愤怒的状态中解脱出来,以此来减少家庭冲突
[C] 减少家庭纷争并不是件很困难的事情
[D] 如果马上就要发生冲突,最好换个角度考虑
答案:C 难度系数:☆
分析:推理题。第四段第一句是说,减少家庭冲突的方法和解决姻亲、同事、邻居以及与其他人的矛盾的方法差不多,紧接着就列举了这样的方法,由此可以看出,作者是为了说明解决家庭矛盾并不是很难。因此,选项C为正确答案。
4. The strategy for minimizing conflicts in the family suggested by Redford Williams is that _____.
[A] people should undertake housework on one's own
[B] people should choose a brewing dispute rather than a sharp-tongued comment
[C] people should weigh if it is worth of having a feud
[D] people should learn to hold their anger when something unpleasant happens
4. Redford Williams提到的减少家庭矛盾的策略是 _____。
[A] 人们应该主动承担家务
[B] 人们应当选择尖刻的争吵,而不是尖酸的评论
[C] 人们应当衡量一下值不值得发生冲突
[D] 人们应当在发生不愉快的事情时控制自己的情绪
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。第四段提到了这个策略,就是在准备向某个人发起刻薄的言语攻击时,先退后一步,斟酌一下吵架的价值。而最后也提到了要问问自己:这很重要吗?可以看出,主要是要求人们衡量一下这种代价值不值得。因此,选项C是正确答案。
5. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of Tal Ben-Shahar's opinions on family conflict?
[A] Family conflict is necessary for maintaining the positivity in close relationship.
[B] Lack of family conflict will make people void of serious issues.
[C] Negativity in close relationship can indeed improve the relationship positively.
[D] Modest family conflict will do little harm to close relationship.
5. 关于Tal Ben-Shahar对于家庭冲突的看法,下列哪项陈述是正确的?
[A] 家庭冲突对于保持亲密关系的积极的一面是必要的。
[B] 缺少家庭冲突会让人们避免一些重大的事情。
[C] 亲密关系中的负面性能够积极地改进这种关系。
[D] 轻微的家庭冲突对亲密关系几乎没有什么损害。
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。第七段提到了Tal Ben-Shahar的观点,他认为只要家庭的主旋律是和谐的,那么有点冲突并不一定不好,如果真的什么矛盾都没有,那么可能就是出现严重的问题了。选项中,D符合他的看法。而选项A、B和C都是对他的观点比较极端和错误的理解。

虽然亲密的关系往往是健康之源,但是越来越多的证据显示,持续的家庭纷争会对身体造成危害,特别是对心脏来说。在最近的一次研究中,研究人员发现,关系不好的英国成年人患心脏病的几率要比那些没有这种情况的人高34%,心脏病的程度小到胸口疼、大到致命的心脏病发作。美国人进行的大量研究也发现了同样的情况。比如,去年的一项对1,000多对夫妇的长期分析发现,紧张的婚姻关系对身体健康有明显的影响,特别是对年纪大的人来说。
那种折磨人的消极关系是有害的,部分是因为慢性压力的影响,卡耐基·梅隆大学的心理医师Sheldon Cohen说。除了会对心脏有损害外,持续不断的压力会破坏免疫系统,为感冒、癌症和其他疾病带来可乘之机,也会引发抑郁和危险的行为,如饮酒过量。
那些有长期人际关系问题的人比那些挺过丧偶或离婚打击的人要面临更大的风险,Cohen说。但是夫妻关系并不是持续不断的麻烦唯一的潜在根源。根据10月8日的《内科医学档案》上的一份报告,在英国最新的一项研究中,20%的成年人认为除配偶外,还有其他人与他们有亲密关系。
幸运的是,减少家庭冲突的方法同解决与姻亲、同事、邻居及其他人的矛盾的方法差不多,杜克大学的行为科学家Redford Williams说。他推荐的一个方法是:在准备向某个人发起刻薄的言语攻击时,先退后一步,斟酌一下是否要吵架。比如,这次轮到你主持每年一度的节日家庭聚餐了。你在准备了20个人的食物后又费劲地把所有的东西弄干净,最后虽然疲惫不堪,但看到家里面貌一新总算感觉欣慰了。这时门铃响了,你84岁的姨妈迈步走了进来,伸长脖子把四周扫视了一遍。“噢,你肯定没有注意保持家里的整洁,”她大叫着,把自己的外套扔到你伸出的胳膊上。“很自然地,我们会勃然大怒,或者会在这一天剩下的时间里闷闷不乐。”Williams说。但是,他建议我们应该问自己四遍这个问题:这种情形很重要吗?
对敌意和怒气对于心脏的影响研究了数年之后,他和同为医生的妻子开发出了一种名为威廉姆斯生命技能的系统。2005年的一次研究发现,有心脏疾病的人使用威廉姆斯技术后,在发怒时他们的愤怒程度、平均血压和发怒时血压升高的症状都有所降低,抑郁和焦虑也有所减少,并且他们称,对自己与家人及朋友之间的关系也更加满意了。
但是,节假日可能会让每个人都有点小小的额外的压力,所以努力让自己表现得好些,尤其在你就要与人发生冲突的时候,威廉姆斯这样说。但是如果家庭冲突成为每年的主题,那么可能就真的有什么问题了。
并不是所有的冲突都不好,哈佛大学的讲师Tal Ben-Shahar说,他出版了新书《快乐点:掌握每天快乐和长期幸福的秘诀》。“消极的情绪是正常的,只要积极的情绪能战胜它。”他说。“如果没有消极的情绪,反而是一个危险的信号”,人们可能忽视了一些重要的问题。
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