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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 19 - TEXT ONE

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2019年02月18日

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William Illiam Morris (the wallpaper designer, rather than the carmaker) suggested that nothing should have a place that is not known to be useful or believed to be beautiful. Opals, though, might be both. A group of researchers from the University of Southampton, in England, and the German Plastics Institute in Darmstadt, led by Jeremy Baumberg, have discovered how to create a plastic with the gemstone's iridescent properties. Their invention could be used to make a sparkling substitute for paint, banknotes that are hard to counterfeit and chemical sensors that can act as visible sell-by dates.
Opals get their milky sheen and rainbow sparkle from the way light is scattered by the tiny crystals that form them. These crystals are stacked in what is known as a face-centred cubic structure. This means that the constituent atoms are arranged in a lattice of cubes, with one extra atom sitting at the centre of each cube's six faces. Light entering this lattice gets bounced around in ways that generate colour by reinforcing the peaks of some wavelengths and cancelling out those of others.
For many years researchers have been trying to develop a synthetic material with the same light-scattering properties as an opal, by etching patterns into various materials. That approach has failed. Instead, Dr. Baumberg has built his opalescent material from scratch. He and his team grew tiny polystyrene spheres until they were some 200 nanometres across, before hardening them with a blast of heat. They then coated the spheres with a sticky polymer before heating them again. As the mixture was baked, the spheres moved naturally into a face-centred cubic structure.
The result is a flexible film of crystals with opalescent properties that can be used to coat malleable surfaces, producing attractive iridescent hues. The size of the spheres can be tailored to scatter particular wavelengths of light—a useful property for security applications in which it is important that materials can be identified precisely. Moreover, when the film is warped, the spaces between the crystals change—and the colours produced change with them. These two properties make opalescent film an obvious material for currency. Banknotes containing it would produce distinctive colours when stretched, unlike counterfeits made from other materials.
To use the film to detect food spoilage, Dr. Baumberg proposes adding a sprinkle of carbon particles even smaller than the polystyrene spheres. These would nestle in the spaces between the spheres and cause the material to scatter light from even more angles, making it yet more iridescent. This arrangement could be “tuned” to react to specific toxic chemicals. Food packaging made from such a material would thus change colour as the rot set in.
Such packaging need not be expensive. The polymer spheres and carbon particles arrange themselves spontaneously into the correct crystal structure when encouraged by a little heat, so manufacturing opalescent film should be easy. Indeed Merck, a German chemical company that was a partner in the research, has already produced rolls of the stuff a metre wide and 100 metres long. Perfect for wallpaper.
1. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of the opals according to the passage?
[A] For years, scientists' endeavor of imitating opals' unique characteristics has reached to nil.
[B] Opals could be brilliant mainly because they have some kind of iridescent properties.
[C] Opals could be brilliant because they have tiny crystals which could scatter light.
[D] Opals could be used to make a sparkling substitute for paint.
2. The opalescent material that Dr. Baumberg and his team have developed model itself on _____.
[A] the face-centred cubic structure of the opals
[B] the light scattering properties of the opals
[C] the tiny polystyrene spheres of the opals
[D] the flexible film of crystals of the opals
3. The flexible film of crystals Dr. Baumberg has finally got is an ideal material for currency because _____.
[A] it can be used to coat malleable surfaces so that the currency could have iridescent hues
[B] the colours change as the film is bent so that the currency could be identified precisely
[C] different colours could be produced as the film could be tailored to scatter particular wavelengths of light
[D] certain colours could be made as the currency is distended so that it is easy to distinguish
4. The logic that food spoilage could be detected by use of the film is that _____.
[A] the carbon particles Dr. Baumberg adds into the film could react to specific toxic chemicals
[B] the polystyrene spheres could scatter light from more angles
[C] carbon particles positioned among the spheres could be adjusted to be sensitive to addled materials
[D] carbon particles added into the polystyrene spheres could make the film more iridescent
5. The film of crystals with opalescent properties can be used to make the following materials except _____.
[A] paint
[B] banknote
[C] chemical sensors
[D] wallpaper

1. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of the opals according to the passage?
[A] For years, scientists' endeavor of imitating opals' unique characteristics has reached nil.
[B] Opals could be brilliant mainly because they have some kind of iridescent properties.
[C] Opals could be brilliant because they have tiny crystals which could scatter light.
[D] Opals could be used to make a sparkling substitute for paint.
1. 根据这篇文章,下列哪个陈述是不正确的?
[A] 多年来,科学家们试图模仿蛋白石特性的努力都没有取得任何成果。
[B] 蛋白石闪光,主要是因为含有一种闪光的成分。
[C] 蛋白石闪光,是因为含有小晶体可以散射光。
[D] 蛋白石可以用于制造一种油漆中的闪光物质的替代品。
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第三段:For many years researchers have been trying to develop a synthetic material with the same light-scattering properties as an opal, by etching patterns into various materials. That approach has failed. 因此选项A是正确的,其中nil的意思是“零”。选项B对应于文章第一段,也提到了宝石中存在闪光的成分,使得它可以闪光。选项C,第二段提到了这一点。选项D,第一段提到,是发明的一种塑料可以用于制作油漆中闪光成分的替代品,而不是蛋白石自己。因此,答案为D。
2. The opalescent material that Dr. Baumberg and his team have developed model itself on _____.
[A] the face-centred cubic structure of the opals
[B] the light scattering properties of the opals
[C] the tiny polystyrene spheres of the opals
[D] the flexible film of crystals of the opals
2. Baumberg博士和他的研究小组自己研制出的乳白色物质是以 _____ 为原型的。
[A] 蛋白石的面心立方结构
[B] 蛋白石散射光的特性
[C] 蛋白石的聚苯乙烯小球
[D] 蛋白石的弹性晶体薄膜
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆
分析:细节题。文章第二段和第三段都提到了the face-centred cubic structure,尤其第三段末句As the mixture was baked, the spheres moved natually into a face-centred cubic structure. 即这种乳白色的物质是许多聚苯乙烯小球加热后形成的面心立方结构,从而可以闪光。因此,是模仿了面心立方结构,答案为A。
3. The flexible film of crystals Dr. Baumberg has finally got is an ideal material for currency because _____.
[A] it can be used to coat malleable surfaces so that the currency could have iridescent hues
[B] the colours change as the film is bent so that the currency could be identified precisely
[C] different colours could be produced as the film could be tailored to scatter particular wavelengths of light
[D] certain colours could be made as the currency is distended so that it is easy to distinguish
3. Baumberg博士最后研制出的弹性晶体薄膜是制作钞票的理想物质,因为 _____。
[A] 这种物质可以用来覆盖有延展性的表面,这样钞票就可以有特别的光波了
[B] 薄膜弯曲后颜色会改变,这样钞票就可以被精确地辨认出来
[C] 薄膜可以定做,用来散射特定的光波,从而产生不同的颜色
[D] 随着钞票被展开,可以产生特定的颜色,从而容易辨别
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第四段,这种物质可以用于制作钞票,一是因为小球的尺寸可以根据需要定作,用来散射特定的光波,二是因为薄膜弯曲后可以产生不同的颜色。因此,选项B最为符合。
4. The logic that food spoilage could be detected by use of the film is that _____.
[A] the carbon particles Dr. Baumberg adds into the film could react to specific toxic chemicals
[B] the polystyrene spheres could scatter light from more angles
[C] carbon particles positioned among the spheres could be adjusted to be sensitive to addled materials
[D] carbon particles added into the polystyrene spheres could make the film more iridescent
4. 食品的腐败可以使用这种薄膜来发现,这背后的原理是 _____。
[A] Baumberg博士加在薄膜中的碳颗粒可以与特定的有毒化学物质发生反应
[B] 聚苯乙烯小球可以向不同的角度散射光
[C] 在小球中间的碳颗粒可以调节,从而与腐败的物质发生反应
[D] 在聚苯乙烯小球中加入的碳颗粒可以使薄膜更亮
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第五段,加入碳颗粒可以使物质往更多角度散射光,通过调节颗粒的大小可以对特定的有毒化学物质做出反应。因此,选项C为正确答案。
5. The film of crystals with opalescent properties can be used to make the following materials except _____.
[A] paint
[B] banknote
[C] chemical sensors
[D] wallpaper
5. 有蛋白石特性的晶体薄膜可以用来做除 下列_____ 以外的其他物品。
[A] 油漆
[B] 钞票
[C] 化学传感器
[D] 壁纸
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第一段,这种薄膜可以用来做令油漆闪光成分的替代品、钞票和化学传感器,最后一段提到,还可以做壁纸。因此,选项A的表述是错误的,是正确答案。

William Illiam Morris(壁纸设计师而非汽车制造商)认为,没有什么东西是没有用或者不美的。不过蛋白石是既有用又漂亮。英国南安普敦大学的一群研究者和Jeremy Baumberg领导的德国塑料研究所(位于达姆施塔特)发现了如何用这种宝石闪光的特性来制造一种塑料。他们的发明可以用于制作令油漆闪光成分的替代品、难以仿造的钞票以及可当作清晰可见的销售日期来使用的化学传感器。
蛋白石呈现乳白色和五彩的光泽,这是由于构成蛋白石的晶体散射了光线的缘故。这些晶体排列成面心立方结构,这就意味着组成原子呈立方晶格排列,立方体每个面的中心还有一个原子。进入该晶格的光线被反射回来,通过加强一些波长的波峰和减少其他波长的波峰来产生颜色。
很多年来,研究者一直想要研发一种合成物质,通过在不同的物质中蚀刻形貌来使其具有和蛋白石一样的散射光的功能。这种方法失败了。而Baumberg博士创造出了自己的类似蛋白石的物质。他和他的研究小组制造出许多聚苯乙烯小球,当它们的直径达到200微米,再用热风来硬化。接着,他们用一种黏性的聚合体覆盖在小球的表面上,然后再次加热。随着不断的加热,小球自然成为了面心立方结构。
最后得到的就是有弹性的晶体薄膜,它具有蛋白石的特性,可以用来覆盖具有延展性的表面,发出好看的光泽。小球的尺寸可以按要求确定,用以散射特定波长的光——这个特点对于保障安全来说很有用,因为任何物质都可以被精确地辨认出来,这很重要。而且,如果薄膜弯曲的话,晶体之间的空间会发生变化,产生的颜色也随之改变。这两种特性使得这种薄膜成为制造钞票的当然之选。含有该物质的钞票被展开后可以产生特别的颜色,这是用其他材料制作的假钞所不具备的。
如果用该薄膜来检查食品的腐败,Baumberg博士建议加入一些比聚苯乙烯的小球小得多的碳颗粒。这些颗粒可以分布在小球间的空隙里,使得物质往更多的角度散射光,从而显得更亮。也可以用这种方法来应对特定的有毒化学物质。用该物质生产的食品包装可以随着食物开始腐烂而产生颜色的变化。
这样的包装不会太昂贵。略微加热就可以使聚合体小球和碳颗粒自动排列成正确的晶体结构,因此生产这种薄膜就很容易了。实际上,一家德国化学公司Merck是该研究的合作者,现在已经生产出了很多卷1米宽、100米长的该种薄膜,这对于壁纸来说是非常理想的。
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