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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 19 - TEXT FOUR

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2019年02月19日

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Launching people into space may make headlines but it does little useful science. So when George Bush redirected America's space agency, NASA, away from scientific research and towards a manned return to the moon in 2004, many scientists were disappointed. Now the agency has finally offered some small morsels of comfort in the form of four projects that could accompany efforts for a lunar return.
The most exciting of these is the plan for a radio telescope that could be placed on the far side of the moon. Such a device would look back at the early universe to the time when large-scale structures such as galaxies and stars formed. A lunar-based radio telescope would be able to detect long wavelengths that cannot be sensed on Earth because they are absorbed by the outermost layers of the planet's atmosphere. Moreover, by pointing the telescope away from the din of shorter-wavelength radio waves that are used for communication on Earth, astrophysicists would be able to see the early universe in unprecedented detail.
Finding alien life might also be possible with such a telescope. It would be able to map the magnetic fields of stars and exoplanets (planets that circle stars outside the solar system). It is the magnetic field of the Earth that protects its inhabitants from being bombarded by high-energy particles from space that would otherwise leave the planet sterile. Detecting a magnetic field surrounding an Earth-like exoplanet would prove a promising sign for finding extraterrestrial life.
The proposal, led by Joseph Lazio, of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., is to create an array of three arms arranged in a Y-shape, each of which would be 500 metres long and contain 16 antennae. Each arm would be made of a plastic film that could be rolled out onto the surface of the moon, either by robots or by astronauts.
A second project, headed by Michael Collier, of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, would examine how the solar wind—a stream of charged particles ejected from the sun—interacts with the tenuous lunar atmosphere close to the moon's surface. Such bombardment produces low-energy X-rays that would be detected on the surface of the moon.
The third and fourth projects are similar both to each other and to earlier ventures dropped on the moon by the Apollo and the Soviet Luna missions in the late 1960s and 1970s. Some 35 years on, reflectors placed on the lunar surface are still used by scientists interested in geophysics and geodesy (for example, how the moon's gravitational field shifts over time). Most of the reflectors are clustered close to the lunar equator. The proposals, led by Stephen Merkowitz, also of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and Douglas Currie, of the University of Maryland, are to sprinkle some more sophisticated versions over more of the moon's surface.
Such efforts may attract little attention compared with the launch of the space shuttle Endeavor this week. Nevertheless, when NASA argues that putting people into space inspires young people to study science, it is precisely these endeavours that it wishes to encourage.
1. George Bush redirected NASA away from scientific research because _____.
[A] he thought scientific research is useless in the long term
[B] he thought launching people into space was not the first priority
[C] he thought NASA should manage its own business
[D] he thought research was not so practical
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the radio telescope?
[A] The radio telescope could look back at the structures of galaxies and stars when they were firstly formed.
[B] The device would be interfering with shorter-wavelength radio waves used for communication on Earth.
[C] The device could protect long wavelength from being absorbed by the outermost layers of the planet's atmosphere.
[D] The device could have unique functions mainly because of the position it would be adjusted.
3. The radio telescope might also be useful in searching for extraterrestrial beings in that _____.
[A] it could let the astrophysicists examine all the planets in unprecedented detail
[B] it could find out the magnetic field which could protect beings from being attacked by space particles
[C] it could detect any star and exoplanet surrounding the Earth
[D] it could search out the promising sign for finding extraterrestrial life
4. The word “tenuous” (Line 2, Paragraph 5) most probably means _____.
[A] slender
[B] dilute
[C] flimsy
[D] thick
5. The third and fourth projects are different from earlier ventures dropped on the moon in the following aspects except _____.
[A] the position of the reflectors remains on the lunar surface
[B] more advanced applications will be adopted for research
[C] the scope of reflectors will be expanded on the lunar equator
[D] more surface of the moon will be covered

1. George Bush redirected NASA away from scientific research because _____.
[A] he thought scientific research is useless in the long term
[B] he thought launching people into space was not the first priority
[C] he thought NASA should manage its own business
[D] he thought research was not so practical
1. George Bush重新规划了美国宇航局的科学研究,是因为 _____。
[A] 他认为科学研究从长远来看是没用的
[B] 他认为将人类送往太空不是第一要务
[C] 他认为美国宇航局应该管好自己的事情
[D] 他认为研究不是那么实用
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第一段,将人类送往太空对科学研究没有多少用处,但是,George Bush重新规划了美国宇航局的任务,将重点转移到载人重返月球。因此,选项D最为符合题意。
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the radio telescope?
[A] The radio telescope could look back at the structures of galaxies and stars when they were firstly formed.
[B] The device would be interfering with shorter-wavelength radio waves used for communication on Earth.
[C] The device could protect long wavelength from being absorbed by the outermost layers of the planet's atmosphere.
[D] The device could have unique functions mainly because of the position it would be adjusted.
2. 关于无线电望远镜,下列哪个陈述是正确的?
[A] 通过无线电望远镜可以了解到银河系和行星形成时的结构。
[B] 该装置会干扰地球上用于通讯的波长较短的无线电波。
[C] 该装置可以保护长波不被地球大气层最外面的一层吸收。
[D] 该装置有特殊的功能,主要是在于它要调节到的位置。
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第二段,选项A,用该望远镜是要了解星体形成时的宇宙的情况,而不是它们的结构。选项B,没有提到是否会干扰。选项C,并不是保护,而是因为它所处的位置可以探测到没有被大气层吸收的波长。选项D,文章提到了望远镜被安装在离无线电波很远的地方,这样才可以看到早期宇宙的情况。因此,答案为D。
3. The radio telescope might also be useful in searching for extraterrestrial beings in that _____.
[A] it could let the astrophysicists examine all the planets in unprecedented detail
[B] it could find out the magnetic field which could protect beings from being attacked by space particles
[C] it could detect any star and exoplanet surrounding the Earth
[D] it could search out the promising sign for finding extraterrestrial life
3. 无线电望远镜也可以用于搜索外星生物,因为 _____。
[A] 它可以使得天体物理学家非常精细地观察所有的行星
[B] 它可以发现保护生物不受太空颗粒的碰撞攻击的磁场
[C] 它可以探测到地球周围的任何行星和系外行星
[D] 它可以发现寻找外星生物的迹象
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第三段,该装置还可以用来搜索外星生物,是因为它可以探测到行星和系外行星的磁场,有磁场存在就表明可能有生物存在。因此,答案为B。
4. The word “tenuous” (Line 2, Paragraph 5) most probably means _____.
[A] slender
[B] dilute
[C] flimsy
[D] thick
4. tenuous这个词(第五段第二行) 最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 微薄的
[B] 稀薄的
[C] 薄的
[D] 厚的
答案:B 难度系数:☆
分析:猜词题。根据常识,月球大气层应该是稀薄的,因此,在四个选项中,B最为符合这个意思,是正确答案。
5. The third and fourth projects are different from earlier ventures dropped on the moon in the following aspects except _____.
[A] the position of the reflectors remains on the lunar surface
[B] more advanced applications will be adopted for research
[C] the scope of reflectors will be expanded on the lunar equator
[D] more surface of the moon will be covered
5. 第三个和第四个计划与早期的探月冒险的不同之处为除 _____ 的以下几点。
[A] 反射器在月球表面的位置是没有变化的
[B] 更加先进的设备将会用于研究
[C] 反射器的范围会在月球赤道上扩展
[D] 月球上面积更大的表面将会被覆盖
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。第六段中提到了不同之处,最后一句表明,要在月球上更多的地方放置更加复杂的设备,因此选项B和D是正确的。而C也提到了分布范围会扩大。选项A说的是相同点,因此,答案为A。

把人送入太空也许能成为头条新闻,但是对科学研究却没有多大帮助。因此,当George Bush在2004年要求美国宇航局将重点从科学研究转移到载人重返月球时,很多科学家都倍感失望。现在,美国宇航局在重返月球计划中增加了四项科研项目,总算给大家带来了些许安慰。
这些项目中最激动人心的,是一种可以安装在月球背面的无线电天文望远镜。通过这种望远镜,人们可以了解到从宇宙早期至大规模天体结构(如星云和恒星)形成的时期。安装在月球上的无线电天文望远镜可以探测到那些无法在地球表面检测到的长波,因为这些长波都被地球大气层的最外层吸收了。此外,天体物理学家们使该望远镜远离地球上用于通信的波长较短的无线电波,从而能够史无前例地细致地观察早期的宇宙。
使用这台望远镜也许还可以寻找到外星生物,因为它能够描绘出恒星和太阳系外行星(太阳系之外围绕恒星运动的行星)的磁场图。正是由于地球磁场的保护,地球上的生物才能免受来自太空中的高能粒子的袭击,否则这个星球就会变成一片不毛之地。如果能够检测到某个太阳系外行星也像地球一样被磁场包围,就有希望找到地外生命。
该计划由美国华盛顿特区海军研究实验室的Joseph Lazio领导,目标是造出一个三臂状构成的Y字形天线阵,其中每条臂长500米,含16根天线,用塑料薄膜制成,以便由机器人或宇航员平铺在月球表面。
第二项计划的负责人是美国宇航局戈达德太空飞行中心的Michael Collier,该计划将研究太阳风——太阳喷射出的一束带电粒子流——如何与月球表面稀薄的大气相互作用。这种作用产生的低能X射线可以在月球表面被探测到。
第三项和第四项计划彼此相似,并与20世纪60年代末和70年代进行的阿波罗计划和苏联的登月计划也大同小异。现在,那些放置于月球表面的反射器已差不多工作了35年,且仍然为那些对地球物理学和测地学(如研究月球引力场如何随时间而变化)感兴趣的科学家们使用着。大多数反射器都安装在靠近月球赤道的地方。这两项计划的主管人是同属美国宇航局戈达德太空飞行中心的Stephen Merkowitz以及马里兰大学的Douglas Currie,其目标是在月球上更大的范围内布置一些更为复杂的反射器。
与本周发射的“奋进”号航天飞机相比,这些月球计划可能不会引起多大关注,但是,当美国宇航局极力主张载人航天可以激励年轻人学习科学时,为月球计划而“奋进”的精神也正是它所要鼓励的。
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