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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 24 - TEXT TWO

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2019年02月25日

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Berkeley seems like a fitting place to find the godfather of the open-innovation movement basking in glory. The Californian village was, after all, at the very heart of the anti-establishment movement of the 1960s and has spawned plenty of radical thinkers. One of them, Henry Chesbrough, a business professor at the University of California at Berkeley, observes with a smile that “this is the 40th anniversary of the Summer of Love”.
Mr. Chesbrough's two books Open Innovation and Open Business Models have popularised the notion of looking for bright ideas outside of an organisation. As the concept of open innovation has become ever more fashionable, the corporate R&D lab has become decreasingly relevant. Most ideas don't come from there.
To see why travel to Cincinnati, Ohio—which is about as far removed culturally from Berkeley as one can get in America. The conservative mid-western city is home to P&G, historically one of the most traditional firms in America. For decades, the company that brought the world Ivory soap, Crest toothpaste and Ariel detergent had a closed innovation process, centred around its own secretive R&D operations.
No longer. P&G has radically altered the way it comes up with new ideas and products. It now welcomes and works with universities, suppliers and outside inventors. It also offers them a share in the rewards. In less than a decade, P&G has increased the proportion of new-product ideas originating from outside of the firm from less than a fifth to around half. That has boosted innovation and, says its boss, Mr. Lafley, is the main reason why P&G has been able to grow at 6% a year between 2001 and 2006, tripling annual profits to $8.6 billion. The company now has a market capitalisation of over $200 billion.
IBM is another iconic firm that has jumped on the open-innovation bandwagon. The once-secretive company has done a sharp U-turn and embraced Linux, an open-source software language. IBM now gushes about being part of the “open-innovation community”, yielding hundreds of software patents to the “creative commons” rather than registering them for itself. However, it also continues to take out patents at a record pace in other areas, such as advanced materials, and in the process racks up some $1 billion a year in licensing fees.
Since an army of programmers around the world work on developing Linux essentially at no cost, IBM now has an extremely cheap and robust operating system. It makes money by providing its clients with services that support the use of Linux—and charging them for it. Using open-source software saves IBM a whopping $400m a year, according to Paul Horn, until recently the firm's head of research. The company is so committed to openness that it now carries out occasional “online jam sessions” during which tens of thousands of its employees exchange ideas in a mass form of brainstorming.
Mr. Chesbrough, of course, heartily approves. He gives dozens of other examples of firms doing similar things, ranging from Clorax, a household products firm to Air Products, an industrial gases company. Mr. Chesbrough reckons that “IBM and P&G have timed their shift to a high-volume open-business model very well” and that if their competitors do not do the same, they will be in trouble.
1. “Summer of Love” is probably _____.
[A] a religious activity celebrating the open-innovation movement
[B] the anti-establishment movement
[C] a movement advocating the innovation
[D] an activity calling for open innovation
2. According to the passage, the annual profits of P&G in 2001 was about _____.
[A] $2.87 billion
[B] $1.075 billion
[C] $2.15 billion
[D] $4.3 billion
3. IBM now gushes about being part of the “open-innovation community” in that _____.
[A] it embraced an open-source software language that is widely supported by the “creative commons”
[B] it endows people inside and outside the company with the access to the software patents it owns
[C] it encourages an extensive public involvement in the development of new software for the company
[D] it indeed whops its cost and gains considerable profit from using Linux
4. IBM could provide its clients with cheap operating system because _____.
[A] its programmers around the world develop Linux essentially at no cost
[B] it makes money by providing its clients with toll services supporting the operating system instead
[C] it could save a lot of money by using open-source software
[D] it has shifted its R&D outside, which save a lot of money
5. According to the last paragraph, if their competitors do not do the same, they will be in trouble because _____.
[A] their competitors will lose their market share gradually which would be taken by R&D
[B] they fail to adopt the new model of open business which would pave the way to constant business success
[C] they do not recognize the best time to shift their backward business model
[D] they will be sifted out by the market as a result of their conservativeness

1. “Summer of Love” is probably _____.
[A] a religious activity celebrating the open-innovation movement
[B] the anti-establishment movement
[C] a movement advocating the innovation
[D] an activity calling for open innovation
1. “爱之夏”可能是 _____。
[A] 庆祝开放式创新运动的宗教活动
[B] 反正统运动
[C] 号召创新的运动
[D] 提倡开放式创新的运动
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第一段:The Californian village was, after all, at the very heart of the anti-establishment movement of the 1960s and has spawned plenty of radical thinkers. 即20世纪60年代发生了反正统运动,可能“爱之夏”就是这个运动的名称。因此,答案为B。
2. According to the passage, the annual profits of P&G in 2001 was about _____.
[A] $2.87 billion
[B] $1.075 billion
[C] $2.15 billion
[D] $4.3 billion
2. 根据这篇文章,宝洁公司2001年的年利润为 _____。
[A] 28.7亿美元
[B] 10.75亿美元
[C] 21.5亿美元
[D] 43亿美元
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据文章第四段:That has boosted innovation and, says its boss, Mr. Lafley, is the main reason why P&G has been able to grow at 6% a year between 2001 and 2006, tripling annual profits to $8.6 billion. The company now has a market capitalisation of over $200 billion. 即从2001年到2006年年利润持续增加,是原来的三倍,即86亿美元,那么原来的利润就应该是28.7亿美元,因此,选项A是正确答案。
3. IBM now gushes about being part of the “open-innovation community” in that _____.
[A] it embraced an open-source software language that is widely supported by the “creative commons”
[B] it endows people inside and outside the company with the access to the software patents it owns
[C] it encourages an extensive public involvement in the development of new software for the company
[D] it indeed whops its cost and gains considerable profit from using Linux
3. IBM现在不停地说自己是“开放式创新社团”中的一员,因为 _____。
[A] 它拥有一种资源开放的软件语言,这种语言受到了“发明的公众”的广泛支持
[B] 它赋予公司内外的人们使用它所拥有的软件专利的权利
[C] 它鼓励更多的公众参与到为公司研发新的软件中来
[D] 由于使用了Linux,公司确实大大降低了成本并增加了可观的利润
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据文章第五段:IBM now gushes about being part of the “open-innovation community”, yielding hundreds of software patents to the “creative commons” rather than registering them for itself. 可见,IBM现在不停地说自己是“开放式创新社团”中的一员,它让公众发明软件,从而拥有其专利权,而不是自己去注册;但是在其他领域它自己也进行注册。因此,只有选项C符合题意。A在一定程度上也是正确的,只是没有选项C更加确切地符合原文的意思。
4. IBM could provide its clients with cheap operating system because _____.
[A] its programmers around the world develop Linux essentially at no cost
[B] it makes money by providing its clients with toll services supporting the operating system instead
[C] it could save a lot of money by using open-source software
[D] it has shifted its R&D outside, which save a lot of money
4. IBM可以为自己的客户提供廉价的操作系统,因为 _____。
[A] 它遍布世界各地的程序员基本以零成本来开发Linux
[B] 它通过为客户提供支持操作系统的付费服务来赚钱
[C] 它可以通过使用资源开放的软件来节约一大笔资金
[D] 它将自己的研发部转移到了外面,这样可以省去一大笔钱
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第六段:It makes money by providing its clients with services that support the use of Linux—and charging them for it. 可见,IBM为其客户提供支持Linux系统的服务并收取费用来赢利,而操作系统的收费就低廉了。因此,答案为B。
5. According to the last paragraph, if their competitors do not do the same, they will be in trouble because _____.
[A] their competitors will lose their market share gradually which would be taken by R&D
[B] they fail to adopt the new model of open business which would pave the way to constant business success
[C] they do not recognize the best time to shift their backward business model
[D] they will be sifted out by the market as a result of their conservativeness
5. 根据最后一段,如果他们的竞争者不这样做,他们就会陷入麻烦,因为 _____。
[A] 他们的竞争者会逐渐失去其市场份额,这些市场份额都会被研发部获得
[B] 他们没有采用开放式商业的新模式,而只有这种模式才能使公司取得持续的成功
[C] 这些公司没有意识到改变他们落后的商业模式的最佳时期
[D] 他们会因为保守而被市场淘汰
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据文章最后一段:Mr. Chesbrough reckons that “IBM and P&G have timed their shift to a high-volume open-business model very well” and that if their competitors do not do the same, they will be in trouble. 即如果他们的竞争对手不这样做,可就有麻烦了。要明确是谁会碰到麻烦——是他们的竞争对手,因为这样的话,他们的竞争对手很可能会被淘汰出局,因此,选项D是正确答案。选项A的前半句,即their competitors will lose their market share gradually是正确的,但是后半句却不正确,这里不是说由研发部获得市场份额,而是文中提到的包括宝洁公司在内的采用了新的商业模式的公司。选项B的错误在于,文章并没有明确指出开放式商业的新模式能够起到pave the way to constant business success的作用。选项C则与题干的问题无关。

伯克利似乎是备受瞩目的能够找到开放式创新运动领军人物的地方。毕竟,这个位于加利福尼亚州的村庄是20世纪60年代反正统运动的中心,在这里诞生了许多激进的思想者。其中一位名叫Henry Chesbrough,是加利福尼亚大学商学专业教授,他笑着说:“这是‘爱之夏’的40周年庆典。”
Chesbrough先生的两本书《开放的创新》与《开放的商业模式》使得在组织以外寻找好主意的理念开始流行起来。随着开放式创新的概念越来越流行,公司的研发实验室就显得越来越不重要了。大多数的新想法并不是从那个实验室里产生的。
去俄亥俄州的辛辛那提的原因是那里是全美与伯克利在文化上差异最大的地方了。这个保守的中西部城市是宝洁公司起家的地方,宝洁公司是美国历史上最传统的公司之一。几十年来,该公司为世界奉献了象牙牌香皂、佳洁士牙膏和Ariel清洁剂,它拥有封闭的发明程序,以其秘密的研发部为核心。
但这些都已经成为历史了。宝洁公司已大幅度改变了其产生新想法和发明新产品的模式。公司现在欢迎并与大学、供应商以及外面的发明家合作,甚至还将奖金分给他们一份。宝洁公司用了不到10年就大幅提高了公司外部新产品研发的比例,从不到1/5的比例上升到了现在的约1/2。公司老总Lafley先生说,这大大推进了创新,也是宝洁从2001年到2006年保持每年以6%的速度增长的主要原因,现在的年利润已是原来的三倍,达到86亿美元。目前,该公司的市场资本总额为两千多亿美元。
IBM是另外一家跳上开放式创新流行花车的传统公司。这家曾经非常秘密的公司来了一个180度的大转弯,开始接纳一种资源开放的软件语言Linux。IBM现在总说自己是“开放式创新社团”中的一员,将大量的软件专利权给了“发明的公众”,而不是由公司自己注册。但是,IBM在其他领域继续以创纪录的速度取得专利,比如高级材料领域,在这个过程中,许可费用就达到了每年约10亿美元。
由于在全世界有大批程序员以几乎零成本的方式开发Linux,因此,IBM现在拥有非常廉价且强大的操作系统。它通过为客户提供支持Linux系统的服务来赚钱。据该公司的研发主任Paul Horn称,使用资源开放的软件一年就为IBM节约了四亿美元。该公司如此致力于开放,以至于它有时会召开一些“在线会议”,使得成千上万的员工可以通过大规模的自由讨论来交流想法。
Chesbrough先生当然赞同这点,他还举了许多其他公司相似的做法为例,其中就有家居用品公司Clorax,还有工业用油公司“空气产品”。Chesbrough先生承认,“IBM和宝洁公司成功地转变为高度开放的商业模式”,而如果他们的竞争对手不这样做的话,可能就有麻烦了。
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