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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 25 - TEXT THREE

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2019年02月27日

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Everyone is interested in whether different foods or nutrients affect our odds of getting diseases like cancer or of developing risk factors for those diseases, such as too much weight or high blood pressure. But there are many barriers to studying dietary change, which is why we still have no easy answers to the question of what, exactly, we should eat to be at our healthiest. It's also why you can be forgiven for often feeling whipsawed by headlines: Is coffee good or bad? What about alcohol, garlic, or chocolate?
This week researchers reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association that breast cancer survivors who cram their diets with fruits and vegetables are no more likely to escape a recurrence than women who stick to the usual five-a-day recommendation. Does that mean fruits and vegetables don't protect against cancer? No—just that in this specific group of women with breast cancer, the extra greens and additional apples didn't seem to help.
We asked researchers to explain why studies involving dietary changes are so hard to do—and what consumers should keep in mind when they read about them. Here's what the experts said:
Most diet studies take place in the real world. That means study subjects are keeping diaries of what they eat as they go rather than having their intake strictly controlled by someone else. You can give them meal advice, counseling, and how-to books up to their ears, but at the end of the day, they are on their own when it comes to what they put in their mouths. It's easier to get people to add something—like garlic, in the form of tasty sandwich spreads, or dark chocolate—than to take something away; no wonder a recent study comparing low-fat and low-carb diet plans found that almost no one was sticking to them by the end.
In studies focusing on diet, including the recent study on breast cancer recurrence, the amount of calories subjects reported eating would have caused them to lose far more weight than they actually did lose. The misreporting isn't necessarily vicious, but the inaccuracies add up. Say you're phoned about your daily intake on a day when it was someone's birthday at work and you had a slice of cake. You may not report it, thinking that a typical day wouldn't include the cake... forgetting yesterday's “special occasion” piece of pizza, and the Big Gulp of the day before. Or, despite the portion size guides you get, you characterize your bagel from the deli as a 4-ounce standard serving when a 4-ounce bagel hasn't been sighted in any major city for a decade.
“You can't put a camera in everyone's belly and see exactly what they ate,” says Christopher Gardner, a nutrition scientist at the Stanford Prevention Research Center who has recently published research on garlic and diet plans. You can get around this in some studies by taking objective measurements. Weight, for example, or if you're assessing intake of fruits and veggies, you can measure the level of pigments called carotenoids in the blood. In the breast cancer study, blood tests showed that the study subjects actually did eat more fruits and veggies (carotenoid concentration was 73 percent higher in those women after one year and 43 percent higher after four years). But objective measures can't definitively nail down whether someone is eating nutrients in certain proportions.
1. One can be forgiven for feeling whipsawed by those headlines because _____.
[A] there is no solid and convincing scientific hypothesis on these subjects
[B] the question about what the healthiest food is has no answers
[C] opinions on these subjects are quite contradictory
[D] there is no authoritative answer to these questions
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the conclusion of the study on breast cancer recurrence?
[A] Women who stick to the five-a-day recommendation are less likely to have a recurrence.
[B] Women who eat extra greens and vegetables are less likely to escape a recurrence.
[C] Women could depend on fruit diet to avoid the breast cancer recurrence.
[D] Fruits and vegetables are no good to women with breast cancer.
3. From the results of the studies focusing on diet, it can be inferred that _____.
[A] the amount of calories set in diet could not help people to lose weight
[B] people are reluctant to take part in such studies
[C] it is difficult to get valuable conclusion from these studies
[D] this kind of studies is not objective enough
4. The fact that a 4-ounce bagel hasn't been sighted in any major city for a decade implies that _____.
[A] you should re-examine the standard size of the food you intake
[B] you tend to give an inaccurate report of your actual diet
[C] you fail to cooperate with the doctor by false record of your daily food
[D] you make a mistake in noting down the size of standard serving
5. The limitation of the objective measurements mentioned in the last paragraph is that _____.
[A] they could only assess the proportion of fruits and veggies study subjects have taken
[B] they could not have the subjects follow exactly the food proportion of their diet
[C] they could not identify the levels of all the nutrients in patients' blood
[D] they could not tell the exact proportions of nutrients study subjects have eaten

1. One can be forgiven for feeling whipsawed by those headlines because _____.
[A] there is no solid and convincing scientific hypothesis on these subjects
[B] the question about what the healthiest food is has no answers
[C] opinions on these subjects are quite contradictory
[D] there is no authoritative answer to these questions
1. 人们看到那些新闻标题会觉得很迷茫,这可以理解,因为 _____。
[A] 关于这些主题的研究还没有得出可靠和可信的科学假设
[B] 关于什么食物是最健康的这个话题是没有答案的
[C] 关于这些话题的观点分歧很大
[D] 这些问题不存在权威的答案
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第一段:But there are many barriers to studying dietary change, which is why we still have no easy answers to the question of what, exactly, we should eat to be at our healthiest. 即因为要进行饮食变化调查的障碍很多,所以在该问题上并没有一定的答案,因此,选项D最为符合题意。
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the conclusion of the study on breast cancer recurrence?
[A] Women who stick to the five-a-day recommendation are less likely to have a recurrence.
[B] Women who eat extra greens and vegetables are less likely to escape a recurrence.
[C] Women could depend on fruit diet to avoid the breast cancer recurrence.
[D] Fruits and vegetables are no good to women with breast cancer.
2. 关于对乳腺癌复发的研究得出的结论,下列哪项陈述是正确的?
[A] 坚持一天五顿饭建议的妇女的复发几率要小一些。
[B] 多吃绿色蔬菜和水果的妇女并不能避免复发。
[C] 妇女可以依靠水果餐来避免乳腺癌复发。
[D] 水果和蔬菜对于患有乳腺癌的妇女没有好处。
答案:B 难度系数:☆
分析:细节题。根据第二段:...breast cancer survivors who cram their diets with fruits and vegetables are no more likely to escape a recurrence than women who stick to the usual five-a-day recommendation. 即该研究报道表明,吃大量的蔬菜和水果并不能避免乳腺癌的复发,那么选项B是正确的。选项D,虽然蔬菜和水果不能帮助妇女避免癌症复发,但是还是对她们的身体有好处的,因此这个叙述是不正确的。
3. From the results of the studies focusing on diet, it can be inferred that _____.
[A] the amount of calories set in diet could not help people to lose weight
[B] people are reluctant to take part in such studies
[C] it is difficult to get valuable conclusion from these studies
[D] this kind of studies is not objective enough
3. 从饮食研究的结果来看,可以推断出 _____。
[A] 食物中卡路里的数量并不能帮助人们减肥
[B] 人们不愿意参加这样的研究
[C] 要从这些研究中得到有价值的结论很难
[D] 这类的研究不够客观
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第五段:...the amount of calories subjects reported eating would have caused them to lose far more weight than they actually did lose. 即这种研究的结果表明,接受实验者报告的自己摄入的卡路里的数量本来可以让他们减掉更多的体重的,这和他们自己报告的情况不够切实有关。由此可知,这样的研究不够客观。因此,答案为D。
4. The fact that a 4-ounce bagel hasn't been sighted in any major city for a decade implies that _____.
[A] you should re-examine the standard size of the food you intake
[B] you tend to give an inaccurate report of your actual diet
[C] you fail to cooperate with the doctor by false record of your daily food
[D] you make a mistake in noting down the size of standard serving
4. 已经有十年在任何一个大城市都没有出售这种4盎司的百吉饼了,这个事实说明了 _____。
[A] 你应该重新检查你摄入食物的标准量
[B] 你更容易给出与你实际饮食情况相左的报告
[C] 你错误地报告了自己每日的饮食,不能和医生很好地合作
[D] 你在记录标准饮食量时犯了一个错误
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第五段:Or, despite the portion size guides you get, you characterize your bagel from the deli as a 4-ounce standard serving when a 4-ounce bagel hasn't been sighted in any major city for a decade. 说明,尽管吃了许多百吉饼,却报告说只吃了4盎司的那种,那么可以看出报告有误。因此,答案为B。选项C错误的原因在于,尽管报告有误,但是没有说明这就是不与医生合作。
5. The limitation of the objective measurements mentioned in the last paragraph is that _____.
[A] they could only assess the proportion of fruits and veggies study subjects have taken
[B] they could not have the subjects follow exactly the food proportion of their diet
[C] they could not identify the levels of all the nutrients in patients' blood
[D] they could not tell the exact proportions of nutrients study subjects have eaten
5. 最后一段提到的客观衡量的局限性在于 _____。
[A] 它们只能估计被研究者的水果和蔬菜的摄入量
[B] 被研究者无法严格遵循这些衡量规定的食物比例
[C] 它们分辨不了被研究者血液中所有营养物质的水平
[D] 它们提供不了被研究者已摄入营养物质的确切数量
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据最后一段:In the breast cancer study, blood tests showed that the study subjects actually did eat more fruits and veggies (carotenoid concentration was 73 percent higher in those women after one year and 43 percent higher after four years). But objective measures can't definitively nail down whether someone is eating nutrients in certain proportions. 可见,这种血液测量可以测出接受试验者摄入的食物和蔬菜的具体量,却不能确定人们是否摄入了一定量的营养物质。因此,答案为D。

人们都很想知道,不同的食物或营养物质是否会影响到我们患癌症等疾病的几率,或引发导致这些疾病的危险因素,如肥胖或高血压。但是要进行饮食变化的研究有太多的障碍,这就是我们为什么不能轻松而确切地告诉人们什么食物是最健康的。这也就是为什么人们经常会被报纸头条弄得一头雾水:咖啡有利还是有害健康?酒、大蒜和巧克力呢?
本周的《美国医学协会期刊》上刊登了一篇报道,称在患乳腺癌而后康复的女性中,每天吃大量蔬菜和水果的人的癌症复发率并不比坚持接受每天五顿饭建议的人更低。那么这是不是就意味着蔬菜和水果不能防癌呢?是的,对患有乳腺癌的女性来说,额外的绿色蔬菜和苹果无济于事。
我们会问研究者,为什么食物变化的研究这么难做呢?消费者应该怎样看待媒体上的各种评价?专家是这样回答的:
大多数的饮食研究是在现实生活中进行的,这就意味着研究主体只是每天记录下自己所吃的食物,而不是由别人严格控制其饮食。你可以给他们一些用餐建议,告诉他们应该吃些什么,但是这一天里,他们往自己嘴里究竟塞了些什么东西就由不得别人了。让人们往食物里加上点什么——如夹在美味的三明治里面的大蒜,或是黑巧克力——要比让他们把这些食物拿走容易得多。最近的一项比较低脂和低碳食物的研究表明,到最后几乎没有人坚持这种食谱,这就不足为奇了。
关于饮食的研究,包括最近对于乳腺癌复发的研究中,按照报告的卡路里摄入量,这本可以使他们的体重下降得更多。这种误报不一定是恶意的,但是确实有各种不精确的因素。比如,你某天打电话汇报自己每天吃的东西,而那天正好是一个人的生日,你吃了一块蛋糕。但你可能不会提到这块蛋糕,觉得正常情况下你是不会吃蛋糕的。同样,你忘记了昨天吃过的“特殊事件”比萨,前天吃的Big Gulp。或者是尽管你吃了很多,但你却说自己从熟食店买的百吉饼只有标准的4盎司,而实际上这十年以来,已经没有任何一个大城市还在出售4盎司的百吉饼了。
“你不可能在每个人的肚子里都安装一台照相机,看看他们到底吃了什么。”斯坦福预防研究中心的营养师Christopher Gardner说,他刚刚发表了关于大蒜和饮食计划的研究。在一些研究中,你可以采用客观的方法来避免以上情况发生。比如,在检测人们蔬菜和水果的摄入量时,可以测量人们血液中的一种叫做类胡萝卜素的色素水平。而在乳腺癌研究中,血液检测表明,受试者确实吃了更多的水果和蔬菜(一年后,接受测试的女性体内的类胡萝卜素浓度高了73%,四年后提高了43%)。但是客观的方法不能确定人们是否摄入了一定比例的营养。
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