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散文佳作108篇 第35期:苗族龙船节 The Miao Dragon-Boat Festival

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苗族龙船节

The Miao Dragon-Boat Festival
苗族龙船节

龙船节,是黔东南清水江上苗族人民最盛大的节日。节日里,聚会的苗族同胞,每年有三四万人。

The Dragon-Boat Festival is the most important celebration of the Miao people, who live alongthe Qingshui Rwerin southeastem Guizhou Province. Every year between 30,000 and 40,000Miaos participate in the festivities.

龙,在苗族人心目中是吉祥如意的象征。苗家姑娘最爱将龙的变形图案打制成银饰装点在头上,或刺绣在衣裙中,编织于围腰上。

In the eyes of the Miaos, the dragon is a symbol of good luck. Girls like to adorn their hair withsilver omaments shaped like dragons and wear clothes embroidered or woven with dragonpatterns.

苗族人民制作的龙船,十分精巧、美观。龙身由一只母船和两只子船捆扎而成,叫做“子母船”。无论子船还是母船,皆为独木镂空。两米多长的龙头,用水柳木雕刻,装有一对一米多长的龙角。龙头以主色不同,分为赤龙、青龙、黄龙。从施秉县的平兆到台江县的六河,每个苗族寨子都建有“龙篷”,用来保护龙船。因龙船身长25米,“龙篷”建成七格,每格将近四米长,当地又称之为“七间房”。

The Miaos build exquisite"dragon boats," which are in reality a body formed from three canoes-one large and two small-that are strung together. A carved head, painted red, blue, or yellow, ismade from the trunk of a weeping willow tree. It is 2 meters long and sports a pair of horns. Aspecial shelter in seven parts, extending 28 meters, to house dragon boatshas been built inevery Miao village along the Qingshui River from Pingzhao in Shibing county to Liuhe in Taijiangcounty.

每年农历5月24日至27日,几十个村寨相继举行龙船节。当地习惯,从16日开始,只要全寨薅完秧,本寨的龙船便可下水。因此,从龙船下水的早晚,可以看出各寨的农事生产进度,在勤劳的苗家人民心中,龙船节到了,地里的秧还未薅完,这是莫大的耻辱。

The Miao Dragon-Boat Festivalis celebrated from the 24th to the 27th ofthe fifth lunar month.But according to local custom, people are allowed to send their dragon boats down the riverafter the 16th, provided that they have finished weeding their fields. The earlier appearance ofthe boats onthe river tesifies to the villagers' efficiency, and conscientious peasants con-siderit a shame not to finish weeding before the festivities begin.

节日期间,家家户户酿米酒,包粽粑,走亲访友,宴请宾朋。出嫁的姑娘必须携带粽粑、鹅鸭等礼物回娘家,同父母兄妹团聚。龙船出发之前,一位歌师唱首吉祥歌,祝愿船只平安。

During the festival, each family makes r:ice wine and zongba (a kind of dump-ling made ofglutinous rice) and calls on friends and relatives. Married womenvisit their parents' homesbearing gifts-zongba, geese, and ducks.

每只龙船都有一位鼓头。他是一切活动的主持者,由全寨推选出来的德高望重的老人担任。鼓头身着长袍马褂,坐在龙颈上击鼓发令,男扮女装的鼓锣手,由十岁左右的孩童充任。40位水手,身着青布上衣、士林蓝裤子,腰系银饰花带,手握五尺木桨,整齐划一,甚是威武。水手头上的那特制的马尾斗笠,原是清水江上游苗族姑娘出嫁时的陪嫁品,却成了龙船节水手们必备的一件装饰物。

In each boat, an old man rides straddling the dragon's neck. He is the mostrespected man inthe village, chosen by the villagers to be the coxswain. Wearing a gown and a mandarinjacket,the old man beats a drum to set the pace for the oarsmen, and severalboys about 10 years ofage, wearmg dresses,beat drums and gongs. The oarsmen, 40 in all, wield 5-foot-longwooden oars. These powerful-looking men wear horsetail-shaped hats, blue jacketsandtrousers, and embroidered waistbands pinned with silver ornaments. The hats, traditionallydowry gifts for girls from the upper reaches of theQingshui River, have become an essentialfeature of the costumes worn bythe dragon-boat oarsmen.

苗族龙船节,与汉族的端午节不同。除时间不同外,一般不举行竞赛,主要活动是串寨子,走亲访友。清晨,龙船开始在江水中游动,所到之处,亲尤们纷纷到岸边“接龙”。龙船过寨,鸣放铁炮传告亲友,岸上以鞭炮声相呼应。亲友们上前,向船上的人各敬两杯米酒,并将礼品--鹅鸭、彩绸挂于龙头。如系女婿、姑舅等至亲,送上的礼物则是猪羊。

The Miao Dragon-Boat Festival differs from the Han celebration. They are not celebrated on thesame date (the Hans' takes place on the fifth day of thefifth lunar month), and they followdifferent traditions. While the Hans only hold dragon-boat races during the festival, theMiaostake the opportunity to visit friends and relatives. Before a dragon-boat setsout,somebody sings an auspicious song to the boatmen, wishing them agood voyage. Young menset out in boats early in the morning. When they approach a village, they fire guns toannounce their arrival. The villagers setoff firecrackers in response and then go to meet them.The hosts present twocups of rice wine to each oarsman and then tie gifts for their relatives-ducks, geese, and colored silks-onto the heads of the dragons. The tradi-tional gifts for sons-in.law, uncles, and nephews are pigs or sheep.

下午四时左右,龙船靠岸休息,水手们将糯米饭团和肉类放置船帮上就餐。不用碗筷,双手捏出的糯米饭团格外清香可口。岸上的妇女和小孩纷纷前来“讨路边饭”。传说,吃了龙船上的食品,能消灾免难,百事如愿。后来,这就成为传统的风俗习惯。

At 4 p.m. the boats stop alongside the riverbank. The drummers and oars~men on the boatseat glutinous rice balls and meat with their fingers. Womenand children on the shore ask theboatmen to share their food. It is said thateating food from a dragon-boat protects one fromdisaster and gives goodluck.

岸上,还有苗家传统的赛马、斗牛、踩鼓等活动。姑娘们身着节日盛装,应着木鼓鼓点翩翩起舞。飞歌往来,昼夜不绝,青年男女通过对歌,互相了解,建立感情,增进团结和友谊,以致结成幸福家庭。

Horse races and bullfights are held during the festival. Girls in holiday dress dance to theaccompaniment of drums. It is not unusual for young people to meet their future spouses atthe songfests held on festival nights.


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