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散文佳作108篇 第87期:Of Studies 读读书

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Of Studies

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Francis Bacon

弗朗西斯·培根

Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is inprivateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgmentand disposition of business.For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars,one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best fromthose that are learned.

读书足以冶情,足以博彩,足以长才。其冶情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其博彩也,最见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一一判别枝节,然纵观统筹、全局策划,则非好学深思者莫属。

To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, isaffectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar.

读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。

They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants,that need pruning by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large,except they be bounded in by experience.

读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足;因为天生才干犹如自然花草,读书之后方知如何修剪移接,而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。

Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teachnot their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation.

有手艺者鄙读书,无知者羡读书,唯明智之士用读书,然书并不以用处告人,用书之智不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。

Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk anddiscourse; but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed,and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts;others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence andattention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; butthat would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilledbooks are, like common distilled waters, flashy things.

读书时不可存心诘难作者,不可尽信书上所言,亦不可只为寻章摘句,而应推敲细思。书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只须读其部分 者,有只须大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注、孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,摘要也可请人代作,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经 蒸馏,淡而无味矣。

Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing and exact man. And therefore,if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have apresent wit; and if he read little, he head need have much cunning, to seem to know that hedoes not.

读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常动笔者须记忆特强,不常讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。

Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moralgrave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in mores.

读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞使人善辩。凡有所学,皆成性格。

Nay there is no stond or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies: like asdiseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins;shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and thelike.

人之才智如有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之运动除之。保龄利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑马利头脑,诸如此类。

So if a man's wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his witbe called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or finddifferences, let him study the schoolmen; for they are cymini sectores. If he be not apt to beatover matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study thelawyers' cases. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.

如智力不集中,可令读数学,因为演题须全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演;如不能辩异,可令读经院哲学,因为研究经院哲学者吹毛求疵者也;如不善分析论证,不善以一物阐证另一物,可令读律师之案卷。头脑中凡有缺陷,皆有特药可医。


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