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新概念英语第三册(美音版)The first calender

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Lesson 38
The first calender
最早的日历

Listen to the tape then answer the question below.
听录音,然后回答以下问题。
What is the importance of the dots, lines, and symbols engraved on some, bones and ivory?
Future historians will be in a unique position when they come to record the history of our own times. They will hardly know which facts to select from the great mass of evidence that steadily accumulates. What is more, they will not have to rely solely on the written word. Films, videos, CDs and CD-ROMS are just some of the bewildering amount of information they will have. They will be able, as it were, to see and hear us in action. But the historian attempting to reconstruct the distant past is always faced with a difficult task. He has to deduce what he can from the few scanty clues available. Even seemingly insignificant remains can shed interesting light on the history of early man.
Up to now, historians have assumed that calendars came into being with the advent of agriculture, for then man was faced with a real need to understand something about the seasons. Recent scientific evidence seems to indicate that this assumption is incorrect.
Historians have long been puzzled by dots, lines and symbols which have been engraved on walls, bones, and the ivory tusks of mammoths. The nomads who made these markings lived by hunting and fishing during the last Ice Age which began about 35,000 B.C. and ended about 10,000 B.C. By correlating markings made in various parts of the world, historians have been able to read this difficult code. They have found that it is connected with the passage of days and the phases of the moon. It is, in fact, a primitive type of calendar. It has long been known that the hunting scenes depicted on walls were not simply a form of artistic expression. They had a definite meaning, for they were as near as early man could get to writing. It is possible that there is a definite relation between these paintings and the markings that sometimes accompany them. It seems that man was making a real effort to understand the seasons 20,000 years earlier than has been supposed.
New words and expressions 生词和短语
calendar
n. 历法,日历
historian
n. 历史学家
unique
adj. 无与伦比的
steadily
adv. 不断地
solely
adv. 唯一地
video
n. 录像
CD-ROOM
n. (只读)光盘驱动器
bewilder
v. 令人眼花缭乱
deduce
v. 推断,推理
scanty
adj. 不足的,贫乏的
clue
n. 线索
insignificant
adj. 不重要的
shed
v. 使流出,泻
advent
n. 出现,到来,来临
agriculture
n. 农业
assumption
n. 假定,设想
dot
n. 小圆点
symbol
n. 符号
engrave
v. 雕刻
ivory
n. 象牙制品
mammoth
n. (古)长毛象
tusk
n. 獠牙,长牙,象牙
nomad
n. 游牧民
correlate
v. 使相互联系
phase
n. 月相,天相
primitive
adj. 原始的
depict
v. 描画,描绘


未来的历史学家在写我们这一段历史的时候会别具一格。对于逐渐积累起来的庞大材料,他们几乎不知道选取哪些好,而且,也不必完全依赖文字材料。电影、录 像、光盘和光盘驱动器只是能为他们提供令人眼花缭乱的大量信息的几种手段。他们能够身临其境般地观看我们做事,倾听我们讲话。但是,历史学家企图重现遥远 的过去可是一项艰巨的任务,他们必须根据现有的不充分的线索进行推理。即使看起来微不足道的遗物,也可能揭示人类早期历史的一些有趣的内容。 历史学家迄今认为日历是随农业的问世而出现的,因为当时人们面临着了解四季的实际需要,但近期科学研究发现,好像这种假设是不正确的。 长期以来,历史学家一直对雕刻在墙壁上、骨头上、古代长毛象的象牙上的点、线和形形色色的符号感到困惑不解。这些痕迹是游牧人留下的,他们生活在从公元前 约35,000年到公元前10,000年的冰川期的末期,以狩猎、捕鱼为生。历史学家通过把世界各地留下的这种痕迹放在一起研究,终于弄懂了这种费解的代 码。他们发现代码与昼夜更迭和月亮圆缺有关,事实上是一种最原始的日历。大家早就知道,画在墙上的狩猎图景并不是单纯的艺术表现形式,它们有着一定的含 义,因为它们已接近古代人的文字形式。有时,这种图画与墙壁上的刻痕共存,它们之间可能有一定的联系。看来人类早就致力于探索四季变迁了,比人们想像的要 早20,000年。

■calendar n. 历法,日历
calender 轮压机

■historian n. 历史学家
historic 具有历史意义的
This is a historic speech.
historical 与历史研究有关系的
historical research 历史研究

■unique adj. 无与伦比的
unique: uneaqualed
Speech is a unique human ability
unique 不能接受比较级,可以接受quite, almost, nearly, surely, really等修饰,但不能接受rather,very等词的修饰。
unique 独一无二的,因唯一而独特
speical 注重性质的特殊
especial 强调超过其他的全部
Eg: This is a matter of especial importance.
This is a especially important matter.
particular 特定的,着重同类中某一个所有独特的性质
Pineapples have particular flavour. 菠萝有特别的味道。
exceptional
extraordinary 特别的,与众不同的
Eg: The warm weather is exceptional for Jamuary.

■steadily adv. 不断地
■solely adv. 唯一地
■video n. 录像
■CD-ROM n. (只读)光盘驱动器
■bewilder v. 令人眼花缭乱
bewilder: confuse
Eg: she was bewildered by so many beautiful dresses.
puzzle 某问题因复杂而令人费解
Eg: I am puzzled by the problem.

perplex 难以理解(包含焦虑不安,不知如何解决的意思)
Eg: He is perplexed for the answer.
bewilderment: n.
in bewilderment 茫然不知所措
■deduce v. 推断,推理
deduce: determine or decide sth. by given facts.
Eg: I deduce the conclusion from the given facts.
deduce …from 从…中推论,推断
infer 推断(不表示过程)
Eg: What can you infer from the text?
deduce ==> (ant.) indece 归纳

■scanty adj. 不足的,贫乏的
scanty: too few, not enough
scanty knowledge 一知半解
a scanty crop 欠收
be scanty of sth 奇缺
be short of 短缺
Eg: The village school is scanty of textbooks. 这乡村学校奇缺教材。
be want of = in need of 需要……

■clue n. 线索
■insignificant adj. 不重要的
■shed v. 使流出,泻
shed: pour out
shed tears 泪流满面
shed light 发光
shed light on sb. 启发,启迪
shed one’s blood for country 为祖国而流血。
shed one's clothes 脱去衣服

■advent n. 出现,到来,来临
advent: coming or arrival
at the advent of winter 在冬天到来的时候
at the advent of 在…到来的时候
since the advent of 自从…的到来

■agriculture n. 农业
■assumption n. 假定,设想
■dot n. 小圆点
■symbol n. 符号
■engrave v. 雕刻
■ivory n. 象牙制品
■mammoth n. (古)长毛象
■phase n. 月相,天相
■tusk n. 獠牙,长牙、象牙
■primitive adj. 原始的
■nomad n. 游牧民
■depict v. 描画,描绘
■correlate v. 使相互联系

in the unique position 处于无以伦比,独一无二的情况
come to: start, begin
背熟:They will hardly know which facts to select from the great mass of evidence that steadily accumulates.
select from 从……中进行选择(同类中)
choose挑选(凭个人意愿)
一、有三种情况choose和select不能互换:
1.当在两者中选一个时只能用choose, 即choose between
Eg: We have to choose between leaving early and paying for taxi.
2.choose可带wh从句
Eg: I'll let you choose where we should go to eat.
3.choose to do 只能用choose.
Eg: What invariably happens is that a great number of things choose to go wrong at precisely the same moment.(L33 )
He has deliberately chosen to lead the life he leads and is fully aware of the consequences. (L27)
二、select比choose更正式, 即在许多同类的人或物当中根据客观标准对这两个加以比较,鉴别,认真地挑选出最好的、最喜欢的、最有用的。

great mass of == too much ==agreat amount of
evidence 不可数名词;不能手a great many, a large number of
Eg: She selected a blue dress from the wardrobe.
You have been selected to present us on the committee.
what is more 更有甚者,furthremore,moreover 是的意思
what is worse 更糟糕的是

rely on ==count on ==depend on 依靠,指望
Eg: You can’t rely on others.
He can’t be relied on.

solely adv. 唯一地
means: only, just, nearly

bewilder 令人眼花缭乱
bewildering 令人眼花缭乱的
bewildered 感到眼花缭乱的
背熟:They will be able, as it were, to see and hear us in action.
in action 行动中的,活动中的
as it were 可以说,似乎,好像
Eg: He is as it were a walking dictionary. 他可以说是一部活字典
Computers can never as it were lead independent lives. 电脑不能过独立的生活
as it is=in fact=in really=actually=as a matter of fact 事实上
Eg: I thought things would get better,but as it is , they are getting worse.
In many ways children lives as it were in a different world from the adults. 在许多方面,孩子们可以说过着一种与大人完全不同的生活。

But the historian attempting to reconstruct the distant past is always faced with a difficult task.
be faced with: be in the position in which one must deal with a problem or unpleasant situation.
面临(因境,问题)
Eg: Automobile industry is faced with a bad future now. 汽车工业正面临着令人担忧的未来。
A great many people are faced with losing their jobs. 许多人面临着失业。
In my opinion, you are faced with a problem as it were how to get enough time to study English.
The student attempting to learn English well in a year is faced with a difficult task. 企图在一年之内把英语学好的学生面临着巨大的难题。

available adj. 可利用的
Eg: I have dictionary availabe for you.
Is there a place available for us to have a chat.
I know you are in need of help, but excuse me, I don’t have any students available for you.

remains ==ruins 遗迹,遗物
insignificant==unimportant
shed light on=throw light on = cast light on 意思是:make a matter clear or understood 解释,说明,提示

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Comprehension
1 In assuming that calendars came into being with the advent of agriculture, historians made the mistake of _____ .
a. relying solely on the written word
b. disregarding the markings that early man had been responsible for
c. supposing that nomadic man had no reason to understand the seasons
d. not connecting the passage of days with the phasesof the moon

2 The scientific evidence that has recently come to light is that _____ .
a. nomads engraved the bones and tusks of the animals they killed
b. noads lived by hunting and fishing
c. nomads travelled widely in various parts of the world
d. the markings made by variousnomadic groups all have a definite pattern

3 The paintings which have been found on the walls of nomadic dwelling places _____ .
a. have taught historians something about the nomadic way of life
b. have no other content than their artistic merit
c. are not thought to be connected with an ancient calendar system
d. are invariably accompanied by odd dots, lines and symbols

Structure
4 It _____ as if they could see nad hear us in action. (ll.6-7)
a. was b. were c. should be d. will be

5 Even _____ seem insignificant remains can shed interesting … (ll.8-9)
a. they b. which c. what d. those to

6 Historians are now able to read this difficult code _____ markings made in … (ll.15-16)
a. with correlating b. having correlated c. which correlates d. for they correlate

7 _____ be a definite relation between these paintings and the …(ll.19-21)
a. It could b. There can c. There may d. It might

Vocabulary
8 Historians have long tried to _____ dots, lines and … (l.13)
a. puzzle b. puzzle out c. riddle d. detect

9 By correlating markings made in _____ parts of the world … (ll.15-16)
a. different b. several c. many d. other

10 ---- historians have been able to read _____ . (l.16)
a. these puzzling signs b. this hard law c. thesedifficult signals d. this uneasy letter

11 Until recently historians assumed that calendars _____ with the advent of agriculture. (l.10)
a. came to existence b. came toexisting c. cme to exist d. were existential
come to +动词原形:come to record ; come to exist ; come into existence

12 The people who lived by hunting and fishing during the last Ice Age _____ .(ll.14-15)
a. wandered from place to place b. lived in villages c. first learnt to write d. learnt how to farm the land

【Key to Multiple choice questions】
1. B 2. D 3. A 4. D 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. B 9. A 10. A 11. C 12. A

 

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