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“南海仲裁案”实体问题裁决将公布

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2016年07月06日

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菲律宾南海仲裁案仲裁庭书记处29日称,仲裁庭将于7月12日公布关于菲律宾南海仲裁案的实体问题裁决。对此,中国政府多次郑重声明,菲律宾单方面提起仲裁违背国际法,仲裁庭对此案没有管辖权,中国不接受、不参与仲裁。

“南海仲裁案”实体问题裁决将公布

An aerial photo taken on Sept 25, 2015 from a seaplane of Hainan Maritime Safety Administration shows cruise vessel Haixun 1103 heading to the Yacheng 13-1 drilling rig during a patrol in South China Sea. [Photo/Xinhua]

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An arbitral tribunal with widely contested jurisdiction will issue an award on July 12 on the South China Sea case unilaterally initiated by the Philippines, the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) in The Hague said on Wednesday.

总部位于海牙的常设仲裁法庭6月29日发表声明称,将于7月12日就菲律宾单方面提出的南海仲裁案做出裁决。

"The Tribunal will issue its Award on Tuesday, 12 July 2016 at approximately 11 A.M.," the PCA, acting as the registry of the tribunal, said in a press release.

仲裁庭将于欧洲中部夏令时间 2016 年 7 月 12 日星期二上午11时左右在海牙发布裁决,常设仲裁法院为该案的书记处。

"The Award will first be issued via e-mail to the Parties, along with an accompanying Press Release containing a summary of the Award," it said.

裁决书以及附随的新闻稿将首先通过电子邮件向当事方发布,新闻稿中将包括裁决书的摘要。

所谓的仲裁(arbitration)是一种替代性纠纷解决方式(alternative dispute resolution),参与仲裁的各方为arbitrators,进行仲裁的法庭叫arbitral tribunal,最后做出的裁决叫award,仲裁庭做出裁决可以用issue an award表示。

关于南海仲裁案(South China Sea arbitration),我们需要了解几个关键词:

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA,常设仲裁法庭):位于荷兰海牙的政府间组织(intergovernmental organization),本身并不是法庭,主要职责是组织各类仲裁庭来解决成员国之间的冲突和争议。

Jurisdiction(管辖权):菲律宾提请仲裁事项的实质是南海部分岛礁的领土主权问题,不在《联合国海洋法公约》(United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)的调整范围内,更不涉及《公约》的解释或适用,仲裁庭无管辖权。

Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea(《南海各方行为宣言》): 2002年11月4日,在金边举行的中国与东盟领导人会议期间,中国与东盟各国外长及外长代表签署了《南海各方行为宣言》。《宣言》确认中国与东盟致力于加强睦邻互信伙伴关系,共同维护南海地区的和平与稳定。《宣言》强调通过友好协商和谈判,以和平方式解决南海有关争议。在争议解决之前,各方承诺保持克制,不采取使争议复杂化和扩大化的行动,并本着合作与谅解的精神,寻求建立相互信任的途径,包括开展海洋环保、搜寻与求助、打击跨国犯罪等合作。

Territorial issues and maritime delimitation(领土问题和海域划界):在领土问题和海域划界争议上,中国不接受任何第三方争端解决方式,不接受任何强加于中国的争端解决方案。

外交部发言人洪磊29日就菲律宾南海仲裁案仲裁庭声称将于近期公布所谓最终裁决发表谈话,全文如下:

应菲律宾共和国单方面请求建立的南海仲裁案仲裁庭(以下简称“仲裁庭”)于2016年6月29日对外称,将于2016年7月12日公布所谓最终裁决。我想再次强调的是,仲裁庭对本案及有关事项无管辖权,不应进行审理并作出裁决。

The Arbitral Tribunal in the South China Sea arbitration established at the unilateral request of the Republic of the Philippines (hereinafter referred to as the “Arbitral Tribunal”) claimed on 29 June 2016 that it would issue the so-called final award on 12 July 2016. I hereby once again emphasize that the Arbitral Tribunal has no jurisdiction over the case and the relevant subject-matter, and that it should not have heard the case or rendered the award.

一、2013年1月22日,菲律宾单方面就中菲在南海的有关争议提起仲裁。中国政府随即声明,中国不接受、不参与菲律宾提起的仲裁。此后,中国政府多次重申这一立场。

1. On January 22, 2013, the Philippines unilaterally initiated the arbitration on the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea. The Chinese government immediately declared that it would neither accept nor participate in the arbitration initiated by the Philippines, a position that has since been repeatedly reiterated.

2014年12月7日,中国外交部受权发布了《中华人民共和国政府关于菲律宾共和国所提南海仲裁案管辖权问题的立场文件》,全面系统阐明了中国政府对该仲裁案管辖权问题的立场,即仲裁庭对菲律宾单方面提起的南海仲裁案没有管辖权,中国政府不接受、不参与菲律宾提起的仲裁拥有充分的国际法依据。

On December 7, 2014, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China released upon authorization the Position Paper of the Government of the People’s Republic of China on the Matter of Jurisdiction in the South China Sea Arbitration Initiated by the Republic of the Philippines, which comprehensively and systematically elaborates the position of the Chinese government on the matter of jurisdiction in the arbitration unilaterally initiated by the Philippines that the Arbitral Tribunal has no jurisdiction over the case, and that the Chinese government’s non-acceptance of and non-participation in the arbitration are solidly founded in international law.

2015年10月29日,仲裁庭作出管辖权和可受理性问题裁决。中国政府当即声明有关裁决是无效的,没有拘束力。针对仲裁庭11月24日至30日就该案实体问题进行的庭审,中国政府再次阐明了不接受、不参与的立场。

On October 29, 2015, the Arbitral Tribunal rendered an award on jurisdiction and admissibility. The Chinese government immediately stated that the relevant award is null and void and has no binding force. With regard to the hearing on the merits of the arbitration held from November 24 to 30 2015, the Chinese government reiterated its position of non-acceptance and non-participation.

2016年6月8日,中国外交部发布了《中华人民共和国外交部关于坚持通过双边谈判解决中国和菲律宾在南海有关争议的声明》,重申中国坚持不接受、不参与菲律宾仲裁案以及通过双边谈判解决中菲在南海有关争议的立场。

On June 8, 2016, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China released the Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China on Settling Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea Through Bilateral Negotiation, reiterating its position of non-acceptance of and non-participation in the arbitration and settling the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea through bilateral negotiation.

二、菲律宾单方面提起南海仲裁案违反国际法。

2. The Philippines’ unilateral initiation of arbitration breaches international law.

第一,中菲通过一系列双边文件和《南海各方行为宣言》早已就通过双边谈判解决南海有关争议达成协议,《联合国海洋法公约》(以下简称《公约》)规定的仲裁程序不适用中菲南海有关争议。

First, China and the Philippines have agreed, through a series of bilateral instruments and the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea, to settle their relevant disputes in the South China Sea through bilateral negotiation. The arbitration proceeding under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) does not apply to the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea.

第二,菲律宾提请仲裁事项的实质是南海部分岛礁的领土主权问题,不在《公约》的调整范围内,更不涉及《公约》的解释或适用。

Second, the essence of the subject-matter of the arbitration is the territorial sovereignty over some islands and reefs in the South China Sea, which is beyond the scope of UNCLOS and does not concern the interpretation or application of UNCLOS.

第三,菲律宾提请仲裁事项构成中菲两国海域划界问题不可分割的组成部分,而中国已根据《公约》第298条的规定于2006年作出声明,将涉及海域划界等事项的争端排除适用仲裁等强制争端解决程序。

Third, the subject-matter of the arbitration constitutes an integral part of maritime delimitation between China and the Philippines, thus falling within the scope of the declaration made by China in 2006 pursuant to Article 298 of UNCLOS, which excludes disputes concerning maritime delimitation, among others, from arbitration and other compulsory dispute settlement procedures.

第四,菲律宾无视中菲从未就其所提仲裁事项进行任何谈判的事实,偷换概念,虚构争端,未履行《公约》第283条就争端解决方式交换意见的义务。

Fourth, the Philippines, in disregard of the fact that China and the Philippines have never engaged in any negotiation on any of the subject-matter of the arbitration, distorted concepts, invented disputes, and failed to fulfill its obligation under Article 283 of UNCLOS to exchange views on means of dispute settlement.

三、仲裁庭建立在菲律宾非法行为和诉求基础上,对有关事项不具有管辖权。仲裁庭不顾中菲已选择通过谈判协商方式解决争端的事实,无视菲律宾所提仲裁事项的实质是领土主权问题的事实,规避中方根据《公约》规定做出的排除性声明,自行扩权和越权,强行对有关事项进行审理,损害缔约国享有的自主选择争端解决方式的权利,破坏《公约》争端解决体系的完整性。

3. The Arbitral Tribunal, established on the basis of illegal conduct and claims of the Philippines, has no jurisdiction over the relevant matters. The Arbitral Tribunal, taking no regard of the fact that China and the Philippines have chosen to settle disputes through negotiation and consultation and the fact that the essence of the subject-matter of the arbitration is territorial sovereignty, circumvented the optional exceptions declaration China has made in accordance with UNCLOS, expanded and exceeded its jurisdiction at will, and pushed forward the hearing on the relevant subject-matter. Such acts have infringed on the right of a state party to UNCLOS to choose means of dispute settlement of its own will, and undermined the integrity of the UNCLOS dispute settlement regime.

四、在领土问题和海域划界争议上,中国不接受任何第三方争端解决方式,不接受任何强加于中国的争端解决方案。中国政府将继续遵循《联合国宪章》确认的国际法和国际关系基本准则,坚持与直接有关当事国在尊重历史事实的基础上,根据国际法,通过谈判协商解决南海有关争议,维护南海和平稳定。

4. With regard to territorial issues and maritime delimitation disputes, China does not accept any means of third party dispute settlement or any solution imposed on China. The Chinese government will continue to abide by international law and basic norms governing international relations as enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, and will continue to work with states directly concerned to resolve the relevant disputes in the South China Sea through negotiation and consultation on the basis of respecting historical facts and in accordance with international law, so as to maintain peace and stability in the South China Sea.


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