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看美国大选辩论学英语系列之三

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2016年10月27日

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北京时间10月20日上午,美国大选第三场也是最后一场辩论如期上演。这一场又回归到主持人提问,两人回答并自由辩论的模式,话题涉及移民、经济、ISIS、美国债务、最高法院大法官的提名以及两位候选人是否能胜任美国总统。两人本场的大部分交锋都有点似曾相识,有些地方甚至还照搬了之前辩论中的原话,让人颇感无味。最大的亮点大概就是主持人很直白地问特朗普,他是否会接受最终的大选结果。特朗普没有正面回答,只是说:“I will tell you at the time, I will keep you in suspense.”到时候我再告诉你,先跟你卖个关子。不得不让人遐想连篇。

言归正传,我们继续跟着第三场辩论学英语。

看美国大选辩论学英语系列之三

1. Tremendous

其实,这个词并不怎么值得讲,但是,特朗普这三场辩论的发言中,这个词出现的频率非常高,当然,他自己本身就喜欢一个词说三遍。所以,不如就拿出来说一说吧。

这个词多用来表达“极”这个程度,尤指极大的,极好的。换句话说,如果用形容词的最高级形式还不足以表达你的意思,你就可以试试用tremendous。想看几个例句学学用法?特朗普给了我们好多呢。

原话摘录:

“Something happened recently where Justice Ginsburg made some very inappropriate statements toward me and toward a tremendous number of people.

最近有个事儿,金斯伯格大法官针对我和很多很多人发表了一些非常不妥的言论。”

“The justices that I am going to appoint will be pro-life. They will have a conservative bent. They will be protecting the second amendment. They are great scholars in all cases and they're people of tremendous respect.

我要提名的大法官们都将是珍视生命的,他们会倾向于保守,会保护第二修正案。他们是各个领域的伟大学者,是广受尊敬的人。”

“Let me just tell you before we go any further, in Chicago, which has the toughest gun laws in the United States, probably you could say by far, they have more gun violence than any other city. So we have the toughest laws and you have tremendous gun violence.

在我们继续讨论之前,先让我说一句。芝加哥的控枪法案是美国最严厉的,不过目前为止,芝加哥的枪支暴力事件比别的城市都要多。所以,我们有最严厉的法律,而你们有大量的枪支暴力事件。”

2. Outsmart

两人聊着聊着移民又扯到俄罗斯和普京的话题上了。希拉里说对美国的网络入侵是俄罗斯人干的,而且是高层在背后策划,目的就是干预美国大选,帮助特朗普当选。特朗普再次表示不认识普京,并且表示,希拉里这么不喜欢普京是因为普京在很多事情上做得都比她聪明。Putin has outsmarted her at every step of the way.

英文的各种前缀、后缀真是扩展词汇量的好帮手,掌握了一定量的核心词汇,以及各种前后缀的构词规律,你的词汇量立马就能翻番。拿这里的这个out来说,作为前缀一般加在动词前面,表示“超越”之意,比如:She outlived her husband.(她比她丈夫活得久。)/We are outnumbered in this competition.(在这场竞争中,我们寡不敌众。)还有去别人家做客时最常用的outstay one’s welcome(在别人家逗留太久而不受欢迎)。

这里的outsmart则是在形容词smart前面加了前缀out变身为动词使用,与其类似的另外一个词是outwit,用机智打败(别人),wit本身是个名词,加了前缀out以后也变成了动词,比如:He always manages to outwit his opponents.

跟前缀out意思相近的另外一个前缀是over,一般加在形容词或者动词前面表示“过度”之意,比如:overuse of antibiotics(抗生素过度使用/滥用)、overconfident people(过度自信的人)等等。

原话摘录:

“Clinton: He would rather believe Vladimir Putin than the military and civilian intelligence professionals who are sworn to protect us. I find that just absolutely –

希拉里:他宁愿相信普京也不愿相信那些发誓要保护我们的军队和平民专业情报人员。我觉得这个太…

Trump: She doesn't like Putin because Putin has outsmarted her at every step of the way.

特朗普:她不喜欢普京是因为普京在每件事上都做得比她聪明。

Trump: She has been outsmarted by Putin and all you have to do is look at the Middle East. They’ve taken over. We've spent $6 trillion. They've taken over the Middle East. She has been outsmarted and outplayed worse than anybody I've ever seen in any government whatsoever.

特朗普:她已经完败给普京了,你们看看中东就知道了。俄罗斯已经全面控制了中东。我们花了6万亿美元,结果中东让他们给控制了。她是所有政府官员中完败最彻底的一个。”

3. Debunk

希拉里一直以从政经验丰富自居,特朗普却认为希拉里的经验都是糟糕的经验,还指出希拉里主政美国国务院期间有60亿美元不翼而飞。希拉里回应称那是谣传,早就被揭穿很多次了。

这个debunk是GRE词汇,指“破除传言,揭露真相”,如果在写作时用了这个词,当然在用对的情况下,一定会让书面表达提升一个档次,比如:A number of so-called scientific discoveries mentioned in his article have been debunked by several scientists.跟debunk意思相近的词还有disconfirm、refute等,这两个词都有“否认真实性”的意思,前者是在confirm前面加了表示否定意思的前缀dis来表示否定之意,比如:Later updates on the news story disconfirmed many details of the initial report(该新闻事件的后续报道证明最初报道中的很多细节都是不对的).后者跟debunk的意思更加接近,指“驳倒或否认(观点、谣言等)”,比如:This rumor is impossible to refute(这个谣言根本没法破)。

原话摘录:

“Trump: I say the one thing you have over me is experience. But it is bad experience because what you've done has turned out badly. For 30 years you've been in a position to help. And if you say that I used steel or I used something else, I- make it impossible for me to do. I wouldn't mind. The problem is, you talk but you don't get anything done, Hillary. You don't. Just like when you ran the State Department, $6 billion was missing. How do you miss $6 billion? You ran the State department. $6 billion was either stolen, they don't know. It’s gone. $6 billion. If you become president, this country is going to be in some mess. Believe me.

特朗普:虽说你唯一比我强的就是经验,但那些都是糟糕的经验,因为你的所作所为导致的结果都很糟糕。你在真正能提供帮助的位置上待了30年。你说我利用钢材或者别的什么,我无话可说。我不介意。问题是,你只是嘴上说说却从不实践。希拉里,你从来没有行动。就像你在国务院的时候,60亿美元就那么不见了。你怎么会把60亿没有弄丢了呢?你在国务院主政,那60亿美元要么就是被偷了,没人知道。不见了,60亿美元。如果你当上总统,这个国家就会一团糟。相信我。

Clinton: Well, first of all, what he just said about the State Department is not only untrue, it’s been debunked numerous times. But I think it's really an important issue. He raised the 30 years of experience, so let me just talk briefly about that. You know, back in the 1970s, I worked for the children's defense fund and I was taking on discrimination against African-American kids in schools. He was getting sued by the Justice Department for racial discrimination in his apartment buildings. In the 1980s, I was working to reform the schools in Arkansas. He was borrowing $14 million from his father to start his businesses. In the 1990s, I went to Beijing and I said women's rights are human rights. He insulted a former Miss Universe, Alicia Machado, and called her an eating machine.

希拉里:首先,他说的国务院那事儿不光不是真的,而且已经被多次证明是谣言。不过,我觉得这的确是个重要的话题。他提起了我30年的经验,那我就简要说一说我的经验。你们知道,在上世纪70年代的时候,我就为儿童保护基金会工作,而且还在学校里为受到歧视的非洲裔儿童奔走抗争。到了80年代,我在为阿肯色州的学校改革奔忙时,他向他的父亲借了1400万美元开始创业。90年代,我去了北京,提出女性权益就是人权。他侮辱了一位前环球小姐Alicia Machado,说她是饭桶。

Trump: Give me a break.

特朗普:哎呦喂。

Clinton: And on the day when I was in the situation room monitoring the raid that brought Osama bin laden to justice, he was hosting The Celebrity Apprentice. So I’m happy to compare my 30 years of experience, what I’ve done for this country, trying to help in every way I could, especially kids and families, get ahead and stay ahead, with your thirty years and I'll let the American people make that decision.

希拉里:我坐在指挥室看着本拉登被突袭正法的时候,他在主持《名人学徒》。所以,我很乐意拿我30年的经验来跟你的30年来做比较,我为这个国家所做的一切,尽我所能提供帮助,尤其在儿童和家庭方面,事事为先。美国人民可以自判高下。”

4. Belittle

说到候选人是否能胜任美国总统这一话题时,两人又因为之前特朗普侮辱女性的事情吵了起来。特朗普说,最近站出来说他曾经冒犯过自己的女性可能都是希拉里团队找来的,她们说的话都是假的。希拉里引用了特朗普好几句贬低女性话来反驳,说贬低女性让他感觉自己很高大。Belittling women makes him bigger.

Belittle在这里就是make someone feel little(贬低某人,使某人觉得自己低微)的意思,类似结构的词还有befool,即make a fool of someone(愚弄/欺骗某人),比如:Don’t try to befool me, I’m not stupid(别想愚弄我,我可不傻).

原话摘录:

“Clinton: About another woman, he said “that wouldn't be my first choice.” He attacked the woman reporter writing the story, called her disgusting, as he has called a number of women during this campaign. Donald thinks belittling women makes him bigger. He goes after their dignity, their self-worth, and I don't think there is a woman anywhere that doesn't know what that feels like.

希拉里:关于另一位女性,他说‘这不会是我的首选。’他攻击写了那篇报道的女记者,说她恶心,在竞选期间,他这样说过好多位女性。特朗普认为贬低女性让他自己更高大。他攻击她们的自尊和自我价值,任何一位女性都知道被那样攻击的滋味。”

5. Rigged

本场辩论最大亮点就在这个词出现的时候。主持人问特朗普,你说本届大选被认为操控了,但是你的竞选伙伴公开表示你们会接受最终的选举结果,那么你本人是否愿意接受最终的大选结果。特朗普没有正面回答。

Rig指“阴谋诡计”或者“(用不正当方式)操纵或控制”,体育比赛中结果被人为干预操纵的比赛就叫rigged game,而这种操纵比赛的行为就叫game-rigging,或者match-fixing。如果在选举过程中有人为干预和操控的行为,就叫vote-rigging,比如:She accused her opponents of rigging the vote(她指责自己的对手操控选票).

原话摘录:

“Wallace: Mr. Trump, I want to ask you about one last question in this topic. You've been warning at rallies recently that this election is rigged and that Hillary Clinton is in the process of trying to steal it from you. Your running mate Governor Pence pledged on Sunday that he and you, his words, will absolutely accept the result of this election. Today your daughter Ivanka said the same thing. I want to ask you here on the stage tonight, do you make the same commitment that you'll absolutely accept the result of the election.

主持人:特朗普先生,在这个话题上我想问你最后一个问题。你曾经在竞选活动中警告说,本届大选被人操控,说希拉里正在试图从你手中偷走选票。你的竞选伙伴Pence周日表示,你和他,他的原话,绝对接受最终的大选结果。今天,你的女儿Ivanka也说了同样的话。今晚,在这里我想问问你,你是否同意他们的承诺,你会绝对接受最终的大选结果?

Trump: I will look at it at the time. I’m not looking at anything now, I'll look at it at the time. What I've seen, what I’ve seen, is so bad. First of all, the media is so dishonest and so corrupt and the pile on is so amazing. "The New York Times" actually wrote an article about it, but they don't even care. It is so dishonest, and they have poisoned the minds of the voters. But unfortunately for them, I think the voters are seeing through it.

特朗普:到时候我会考虑这个问题。目前还没有考虑任何有关事宜,到时候再说。我所见到的情况,非常糟糕。首先,媒体都不诚实,都太腐败了,他们的腐败、说谎事件多到令人惊奇。《纽约时报》专门就这个话题写了篇文章,但是,他们完全不在意。他们太不诚实了,以及毒害了很多选民的大脑。不过,我觉得选民们会看透真相的,这对他们来说不是好消息。

Wallace: But, sir, there is a tradition in this country, in fact, one of the prides of this country is the peaceful transition of power and no matter how hard fought a campaign is that at the end of the campaign, that the loser concedes to the winner. Not saying you're necessarily going to be the loser or the winner, but that the loser concedes to the winner and the country comes together in part for the good of the country. Are you saying you're not prepared now to commit to that principle?

主持人:但是,特朗普先生,我们国家有一个传统,也是我们国家引以为傲的一个传统,就是政权的平稳过度。无论竞选斗争多么激烈,在大选的最后结果出来的时候,失败的一方会承认当选一方胜出。我不是说你一定会失败或胜出,但是失败的一方承认败选然后整个国家团结一致朝好的方向出发。你是说,你现在还没有准备好要遵循这个传统吗?

Trump: What I’m saying is that I will tell you at the time. I'll keep you in suspense, okay?

特朗普:我说的是,到时候我会告诉你答案,现在先卖个关子,行吗?”

6. Entitlements

在本场辩论的最后,主持人就美国的债务问题向两人提问时提到了entitlements这个话题,entitlements其实就是指社保、医保等国民保障性福利。主持人提到,这些保障性福利占美国联邦支出的60%,到本世纪20年代,美国的医保基金就要没钱了,到了30年代,社保基金也要空了,届时,人们的保障性福利就要大幅削减了,两位打算怎么办呢?特朗普说,我要减税,我要提振经济。希拉里说,我要对富人多征税,多往社保基金里投钱。

在希拉里发言的时候,特朗普插播了一句“Such a nasty woman.”而在两人此前有关尊重女性的辩论环节,特朗普刚刚说过:“Nobody has more respect for women than I do.”这样自己打脸的举动,想不被人拿出来做文章都不行了。更好笑的是,因为特朗普的这一句话,Janet Jackson早前的一首歌《Nasty》突然登上热搜榜,甚至有好事的网友用这首歌配上特朗普在多个场合说“nasty”这个词的视频。今年这大选,都快成K歌比赛了。

原话摘录:

“Wallace: The one last area I want to get into with you in the debate is the fact that the biggest driver of our debt is entitlements, which is 60% of all federal spending. Now the committee for a Responsible Federal Budget has looked at both of your plans and they say neither of you has a serious plan that is going to solve the fact that Medicare is going to run out of money in the 2020s, Social Security is going to run out of money in the 2030s, and at that time, recipients are going to take huge cuts in their benefits. In fact, the final question I want to ask you in this regard is -- and let me start with you, Mr. Trump. Would President Trump make a deal to save Medicare and Social Security that included both tax increases and benefit cuts, in effect a grand bargain on entitlements?

主持人Wallace:最后我想让你们俩辩论的是,我们国家债务背后最大的推手是保障性福利,占到联邦支持的60%。尽责联邦预算委员会看过的二位的方案,对于本世纪20年代,医保基金要没钱和30年代社保基金没钱这个问题,你们二位都没有给出实质的解决方案。到那个时候,所有参保人员的保障就要大幅削减了。所以,我想问的最后一个问题是,特朗普先生,你先来吧,你会通过增税和减福利来拯救医保和社保,为保障性福利做出妥协吗?

Trump: I'm cutting taxes. We're going to grow the economy. It's going to grow in a record rate.

特朗普:我要减税。我们会发展经济。经济会以创纪录的速度增长。

Wallace: That's not going to help with entitlements.

主持人Wallace:这些都无助于解决保障性福利的问题啊。

……

Clinton: Well, Chris, I am record as saying we need to put more money into Social Security Trust fund. That's part of my commitment to raise taxes on the wealthy. My Social Security payroll contribution will go up as will Donald's assuming he can't figure out how to get out of it, but what we want to do is –

希拉里:Chris,我原来就说过我们需要往社保信托基金里多投钱。这其实是我说要对富人多征税的承诺的一部分。我的计划中,工资中扣缴的社保比例要提高,而特朗普还在想办法脱离扣缴社保的系统,我们要做的是……

Trump: Such a nasty woman.

特朗普:真是个恶毒的女人。”

7. Closing statement

在本场辩论的最后,主持人给了两位候选人每人一分钟的时间做总结陈词,告诉美国人民为什么自己才是最适合当总统的人选。其实,这就是给自己公开拉票了。希拉里罗列了自己的优势,希望美国人民给自己一个机会为国家和人民服务。特朗普继续攻击希拉里,罗列了现任政府的各种问题,然后告诉大家,如果你们选了希拉里,那么你们得到的将是另外四年奥巴马式的执政理念。

这里我们不讲语言点,单纯跟大家分享两个人的总结陈词。

原话摘录:

“Clinton: Well I would like to say to everyone watching tonight that I'm reaching out to all Americans, Democrats, Republicans and independents, because we need everybody to help make our country what it should be, to grow the economy, to make it fairer, to make it work for everyone. We need your talents, your skills, your commitment, your energy, your ambition. You know, I've been privileged to see the presidency up close, and I know the awesome responsibility of protecting our country and the incredible opportunity of working to try to make life better for all of you. I have made the cause of children and families really my life's work. That's what my mission will be in the presidency. I will stand up for families against powerful interests, against corporations. I will do everything that I can to make sure that you have good jobs with rising incomes, that your kids have good educations from preschool through college. I hope you will give me a chance to serve as your president.

希拉里:我想对今晚观看这场辩论的每个人说,我想让全体美国人民都参与进来,民主党、共和党还是独立人士,因为要让我们的国家成为大家期望的样子、发展经济、促进公平、为每个人服务,我们需要每一个人的帮助。我们需要你们的才智、技能、投入、能量还有雄心壮志。你们知道,我有幸能够近距离看到总统执政,因而也知道这是保护我们国家的伟大职责和努力让你们的生活更美好的绝佳机会。我已经把儿童和家庭方面的事务当做我毕生的事业。这也将是我在担任总统期间的主要任务。我会维护家庭免受强权利益集团的欺压。我会尽我所能保证你们都有好工作,收入能增加,你们的孩子从幼儿园到大学都能得到好的教育。我希望你们能给我个机会成为总统,为你们服务。

Trump: She's raising the money from the people she wants to control. Doesn't work that way. But when I started this campaign, I started it very strongly. It's called Make America Great Again. We're going to make America great. We have a depleted military. It has to be helped. It has to be fixed. We have the greatest people on Earth in our military. We don't take care of our veterans. We take care of illegal immigrants, people that come into our country illegally better than we take care of our vets. That can’t happen. Our policemen and women are disrespected. We need law and order, but we need justice too. Our inner cities are a disaster. You get shot walking to the store. They have no education. They have no jobs. I will do more for African-Americans and Latinos that she can do for ten lifetimes. All she's done is talk to the African-Americans and to the Latinos, but they get the vote and then they come back, they say ‘we’ll see you in four years.’ We are going to make America strong again and we are going to make America great again and it has to start now. We cannot take four more years of Barack Obama, and that's what you get when you get her.

特朗普:她正在从她想要控制的那群人那里筹钱。那样行不通的。我开始参与竞选的时候,我是很强势的。我的竞选口号是:让美国再次伟大。我们会让美国伟大起来。我们的军队实力渐衰,需要帮助,需要解决这个问题。我们的军队里有全世界最伟大的人。我们没有照顾好我们的老兵。我们却在照顾非法移民,那些非法进入我们国家的人。我们照顾老兵都没有照顾非法移民那么好。不应该是这样的。我们的警察不受尊重。我们需要法律和秩序,我们也需要正义。我们的内城区简直是灾难现场。去商店没东西都能被枪击。他们没有受过教育,没有工作。我要为非洲裔美国人和拉丁裔美国人做的事是她十辈子都做不到的。她能做的就只有对这些人说一番空话,得到他们的选票,然后他们会说‘我们四年后再见。’我们要让美国再次强大起来,再次伟大起来,而且必须从现在就开始。我们不能再等一个奥巴马式的四年,你们要选她,那就是另一个奥巴马的四年。”

好了,三期辩论结束,两位候选人都啥样儿,我们也看得差不多了。如果你是美国人,你会选谁呢?据说有一半以上的美国年轻人宁愿地球毁灭……

附:2016美国大选总统辩论第三场视频
 


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