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10月新闻热词汇总

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2017年11月03日

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这个10月,全是大事。党的十九大胜利召开,美国宣布退出联合国教科文组织,阿里巴巴成立“达摩院”,我国“天眼”发现脉冲星,北京科研产出居“2017自然指数-科研城市”榜首,《战狼2》参加明年奥斯卡最佳外语片角逐。
10月新闻热词汇总

党的十九大 the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China(CPC)

习近平总书记代表十八届中央委员会向大会作了题为《决胜全面建成小康社会 夺取新时代中国特色社会主义伟大胜利》(Secure a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and strive for the great success of socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era)的报告。

大会的主题是:

不忘初心,牢记使命,高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,决胜全面建成小康社会,夺取新时代中国特色社会主义伟大胜利,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦不懈奋斗。

Remain true to our original aspiration and keep our mission firmly in mind, hold high the banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, secure a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, strive for the great success of socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, and work tirelessly to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.

报告新提法:

经过长期努力,中国特色社会主义进入了新时代,这是我国发展新的历史方位。

With decades of hard work, socialism with Chinese characteristics has crossed the threshold into a new era. This is a new historic juncture in China's development.

新时代中国特色社会主义思想明确了以下几点内容:

The Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era makes certain things clear:

新时代中国特色社会主义思想明确坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,总任务是实现社会主义现代化和中华民族伟大复兴,在全面建成小康社会的基础上,分两步走在本世纪中叶建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国;

It makes clear that the overarching goal of upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics is to realize socialist modernization and national rejuvenation, and, on the basis of finishing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, a two-step approach should be taken to build China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful by the middle of the century.

明确新时代我国社会主要矛盾是人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾,必须坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,不断促进人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕;

It makes clear that the principal contradiction facing Chinese society in the new era is that between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's ever-growing needs for a better life. We must therefore continue commitment to our people-centered philosophy of development, and work to promote well-rounded human development and common prosperity for everyone.

明确中国特色社会主义事业总体布局是“五位一体”、战略布局是“四个全面”,强调坚定道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信;

It makes clear that the overall plan for building socialism with Chinese characteristics is the five-sphere integrated plan, and the overall strategy is the four-pronged comprehensive strategy. It highlights the importance of fostering stronger confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

明确全面深化改革总目标是完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化;

It makes clear that the overall goal of deepening reform in every field is to improve and develop the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and modernize China's system and capacity for governance.

明确全面推进依法治国总目标是建设中国特色社会主义法治体系、建设社会主义法治国家;

It makes clear that the overall goal of comprehensively advancing law-based governance is to establish a system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics and build a country of socialist rule of law.

明确党在新时代的强军目标是建设一支听党指挥、能打胜仗、作风优良的人民军队,把人民军队建设成为世界一流军队;

It makes clear that the Party's goal of building a strong military in the new era is to build the people's forces into world-class forces that obey the Party's command, can fight and win, and maintain excellent conduct.

明确中国特色大国外交要推动构建新型国际关系,推动构建人类命运共同体;

It makes clear that major country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics aims to foster a new type of international relations and build a community with a shared future for mankind.

明确中国特色社会主义最本质的特征是中国共产党领导,中国特色社会主义制度的最大优势是中国共产党领导,党是最高政治领导力量,提出新时代党的建设总要求,突出政治建设在党的建设中的重要地位。

It makes clear that the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Communist Party of China; the greatest strength of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Communist Party of China; the Party is the highest force for political leadership. The Thought sets forth the general requirements for Party building in the new era and underlines the importance of political work in Party building.

新时代中国特色社会主义思想,是对马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观的继承和发展,

The Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era builds on and further enriches Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development.

是马克思主义中国化最新成果,是党和人民实践经验和集体智慧的结晶,

It represents the latest achievement in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context, and encapsulates the practical experience and collective wisdom of our Party and the people.

是中国特色社会主义理论体系的重要组成部分,是全党全国人民为实现中华民族伟大复兴而奋斗的行动指南,必须长期坚持并不断发展。

It is an important component of the system of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and a guide to action for all our members and all the Chinese people as we strive to achieve national rejuvenation. This Thought must be adhered to and steadily developed on a long-term basis.

中国特色社会主义进入新时代,我国社会主要矛盾已经转化为人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾。

As socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, the principal contradiction facing Chinese society has evolved. What we now face is the contradiction between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's ever-growing needs for a better life.

综合分析国际国内形势和我国发展条件,从二〇二〇年到本世纪中叶可以分两个阶段来安排。

Based on a comprehensive analysis of the international and domestic environments and the conditions for China's development, we have drawn up a two-stage development plan for the period from 2020 to the middle of this century.

第一个阶段,从二〇二〇年到二〇三五年,在全面建成小康社会的基础上,再奋斗十五年,基本实现社会主义现代化。

In the first stage from 2020 to 2035, we will build on the foundation created by the moderately prosperous society with a further 15 years of hard work to see that socialist modernization is basically realized.

第二个阶段,从二〇三五年到本世纪中叶,在基本实现现代化的基础上,再奋斗十五年,把我国建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国。

In the second stage from 2035 to the middle of the 21st century, we will, building on having basically achieved modernization, work hard for a further 15 years and develop China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful.

中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会在选举产生新一届中央委员会和中央纪律检查委员会,通过关于十八届中央委员会报告的决议、关于十八届中央纪律检查委员会工作报告的决议、关于《中国共产党章程(修正案)》的决议后,24日上午在人民大会堂胜利闭幕。习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想写入党章。

The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) concluded at the Great Hall of the People Tuesday, after a new CPC Central Committee and a new Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI) were elected. Delegates to the congress also passed resolutions on a report of the 18th CPC Central Committee, a work report of the CCDI and an amendment to the CPC Constitution. The amendment approved at the congress enshrines Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era.

隐私面单 privacy waybill

Chinese express delivery companies have taken a new measure to protect the privacy of customers, by using new parcel waybills that show partial information about the sender and the receiver.

国内多家快递公司开始使用新的只显示发件人和收件人部分信息的运单,作为保护客户隐私的新举措。

所谓“隐私面单”(privacy waybill),是指面单上并不完整显示收件人的信息,而是通过技术手段将用户的手机号、姓名和地址等信息做加密处理(customers' information including names, addresses, and phone numbers are encrypted),快递员通过公司自主研发的APP,直接拨号联系到收件用户。

On the parcel waybills, names, phone numbers and addresses are shown only partially, with signs such as "(^_^)" or "*" being used to take the place of some of the details.

运单上姓名、手机号和地址信息均只显示一部分,以笑脸和星号等符号代替部分细节。

为了减少个人信息“裸奔”(personal information displayed without any protection),隐私面单已经成为诸多快递企业的选择。顺丰上线“丰密运单”,菜鸟网络也联手EMS、百世快递等,共同推动使用“隐私面单”。京东则推出了“微笑面单”(smiling waybill)。

自然指数 Nature Index

Beijing tops the list of cities for research output while Shanghai ranks the fifth, according to Nature Index 2017 Science Cities supplement released on Thursday, reports Xinhua.

新华社报道,10月19日发布的“2017自然指数-科研城市”中,北京高居榜首,上海位列第五。

Nature Index 2017 Science Cities supplement has tracked counts of research output of 500 cities worldwide in the last year.

“2017自然指数-科研城市”分析了全球500个城市过去一年的科研产出数据。

自然指数(Nature Index)是依托于全球68本顶级期刊,统计各高校、科研院所(国家)在国际上最具影响力的研究型学术期刊上发表论文数量的数据库(a database of author affiliation information collated from research articles in the most influential journals around the world)。

“2017自然指数-科研城市”分析了全球500个城市的科研产出(research output)数据,通过加权分数式计量(weighted fractional count,WFC),统计出了全球科研产出最高的十大城市,北京以1693的分值夺得冠军,随后是巴黎、纽约、剑桥(美国马萨诸塞州)、上海、东京、伦敦、波士顿、圣迭哥、剑桥(英国)。这十大城市贡献了全球科研产出的17%。

网联 China Nets Union Clearing Corporation

More than 20 payment institutions and banks have connected to a unified clearing platform set up by Payment & Clearing Association of China.

已有20余家支付机构和银行接入由中国支付清算协会成立的统一清算平台。

网联全称“网联清算有限公司”(China Nets Union Clearing Corporation),是一个线上支付统一清算平台(unified clearing platform for online payment),在央行指导下,由中国支付清算协会(Payment & Clearing Association of China)组织支付机构成立,用以处理由非银行支付机构发起的、与银行交互的支付业务,按照“共建、共有、共享”原则(under the principle of joint set-up,ownership and sharing)共同发起筹建。网联平台的上线运行,为支付机构提供了统一、公共的支付清算服务。

网联清算有限公司注册资金(registered capital)20亿元,股东总数45家(45 shareholders),“央行系”为第一大股东,7家有央行或外管局背景的股东合计持股37%,其中38家为第三方支付机构(third-party payment institutions)。

达摩院 DAMO Academy

The investment of 100 billion yuan over three years in the Alibaba DAMO Academy takes the internet giant one step closer to fulfilling its ambition to serve 2 billion people in two decades, said Alibaba Group's chairman Jack Ma.

阿里巴巴集团董事局主席马云称,三年内将向"阿里巴巴达摩院"投资1000亿元,这使这家互联网巨头向实现其20年内服务20亿人的理想又迈进了一步。

11日,阿里巴巴集团宣布成立全球研究院(global research academy)阿里巴巴达摩院,以吸引顶级科学家进行基础科学(basic science)和颠覆式技术创新(disruptive technological innovation)研究。未来3年,阿里巴巴在技术研发(research and development)上的投入将超过1000亿人民币。达摩院的英文名为DAMO Academy,DAMO是"发现、冒险、动力和前景(discovery, adventure, momentum and outlook)"英文首字母缩写。阿里巴巴首席技术官(Chief Technology Officer, CTO)张建锋将担任达摩院院长(head of the Academy)。

达摩院由全球实验室、高校联合研究所和全球前沿创新研究计划三部分组成。达摩院将首先在中国、美国、俄罗斯、以色列和新加坡建立7家实验室,重点研究数据智能(data intelligence)、物联网(Internet of Things)、金融科技(fintech)、量子计算(quantum computing)和人机交互(human-machine interaction)等领域。达摩院正在全球招募100名优秀研究人员(recruit 100 talented researchers from around the world)。

达摩院还将成立一个学术咨询委员会(academic advisory board),对实验室的研究方向(research direction)、重点研究领域(key research area)、重大任务和目标等提供指导和建议(provide guidance and advice)。首批公布的学术咨询委员会10人中,有三位中国两院院士(three academicians from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering)、五位美国科学院院士,包括世界人工智能(artificial intelligence)泰斗迈克尔·I·乔丹(Michael I. Jordan)、分布式计算(distributed computing)大家李凯和人类基因组计划(Human Genome Project)负责人乔治·M·丘奇(George M. Church)等。

联合国教科文组织 the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

The US has formally notified UNESCO that it is withdrawing its membership of the organization citing "continuing anti-Israel bias".

美国已正式通知联合国教科文组织,因其"针对以色列的持续偏见",将退出该组织。

联合国教科文组织(the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO)成立于1945年11月,总部设在巴黎,目前有195个成员国(member state)和10个准成员国(associate member)。其宗旨是促进教育、科学及文化改革方面的国际合作(promote international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms),以利于各国人民之间的相互了解,维护世界和平。

美国国务院在当日发布的一项声明中称,美国决定退出联合国教科文组织的主要考虑包括不断增加的欠费(mounting arrears)、该组织需要根本性改革(the need for fundamental reform)及对该组织"针对以色列的持续偏见(continuing anti-Israel bias)"。

对于美国的退出决定,联合国教科文组织总干事伊琳娜·博科娃表示"非常遗憾(profound regret)"。她表示,这不仅仅与世界遗产有关(this is not just about World Heritage),美国的退出是"联合国大家庭的损失(a loss to the United Nations family),也是多边主义(multilateralism)的损失"。联合国秘书长古特雷斯对美国的决定也"深表遗憾",不过他表示,联合国将通过一系列组织在一系列问题上与美国进行卓有成效的沟通(interact with the US very productively on a range of issues through a range of organizations)。

行为经济学之父 father of behavioral economics

The 2017 Nobel Prize in economics was awarded to US economist Richard H. Thaler, the father of behavioral economics. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said in its statement that Thaler has incorporated psychologically realistic assumptions into analyses of economic decision-making.

2017年诺贝尔经济学奖被授予美国经济学家、行为经济学之父理查德·H·塞勒。瑞典皇家科学院在声明中称,塞勒将对心理现实的假设融入了经济决策分析中。

塞勒通过探索"有限理性(limited rationality)"、"社会偏好(social preferences)"、"自制力缺乏(lack of self-control)"等因素的影响,揭示了这些人性特征(human traits)对个体选择和市场结果产生的系统性影响,被称为"行为经济学之父(father of behavioral economics)"。诺贝尔经济学奖委员会称,塞勒的研究成果成功地将经济学和心理学整合在一起,让经济学更人性化(make economics more human)。他的理论"帮助人们做出更好的经济决策(help people make better economic decisions)"。

塞勒提出:人们在进行经济活动时,并不像传统经济学理论中认为的那样理性(rational)。譬如,人们拥有某件东西时,会比没有的时候更高估其价值(people value the same item more highly when they own it than when they don't);往往做出最容易的选择,而不是最明智的选择(often choose what is easiest over what is wisest);容易聚焦于单个决策的狭隘影响,而不是它们的总体效果(focus on the narrow impact of each individual decision rather than its overall effect)。

脉冲星 pulsar

After one year of trial operation, China's Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST), the world's largest single-dish radio telescope, has identified multiple pulsars, the National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) said Tuesday.

10月10日,中国科学院国家天文台宣布,经过一年调试,500米口径球面射电望远镜(FAST)已发现多颗脉冲星。FAST是世界上最大的单口径射点望远镜。

Two of the pulsars, named J1859-01 and J1931-01, are 16,000 light years and 4,100 light years from Earth with rotation periods of 1.83 seconds and 0.59 seconds, respectively.

新发现的脉冲星中有两颗分别为J1859-01和J1931-01,前者距离地球1.6万光年,自转周期1.83秒,后者距离地球4100光年,自转周期0.59秒。

据科学家介绍,脉冲星(pulsar)是一种高速自转的中子星(neutron star),由恒星演化和超新星爆发产生。它的密度极高(super density),每立方厘米重达上亿吨,一块方糖大小就相当于地球上一万艘万吨巨轮的重量。脉冲星自转速度很快(fast rotational speed)、自转周期精确(accurate rotation period),是宇宙中最精准的时钟。这一特殊“本领”,让脉冲星在计时、引力波探测(finding gravitational waves)、航天器导航(navigating spacecraft)等领域具有重要应用。

这两颗脉冲星J1859-01和J1931-01分别由“中国天眼”于今年8月22日、25日在南天银道面(the southern galactic plane)通过漂移扫描(drift-scanning)发现。目前“天眼”已探测到数十个优质脉冲星候选体(promising pulsar candidates),其中6颗通过国际认证。

对于观测范围可达已知宇宙边缘的“天眼”来说,发现脉冲星只是使命之一,未来,它还将在中性氢观测(neutral hydrogen observation)、谱线观测(spectrum observation)、寻找可能的星际通讯信号(exploration of interstellar communication signals)等方面大放异彩。

《战狼2》 Wolf Warrior 2

The mega-hit action film Wolf Warrior 2 has been selected to represent China in the bid for the Best Foreign Language Film at next year's Oscars.

大热动作影片《战狼2》被选中代表中国角逐明年奥斯卡的最佳外语片。

With more than 5.6 billion yuan (842 million US dollars) at the box office, "Wolf Warrior 2" is the highest grossing film of all-time in Chinese cinema history. It is expected to end its run in cinemas on October 28.

《战狼2》票房已经超过56亿元,是中国电影史上票房最高的影片。该片的放映时间将一直持续到10月28日。

对于“报送奥斯卡最佳外语片提名”,英文报道中有这么几种表达方式:

China has selected Wu Jing's action film "Wolf Warrior 2" as its entry in the best foreign-language film category at next year's Oscars.

Entry在这里的意思是“参赛作品”,是可数名词,如果提交了多个参赛作品就可以用entries表示。

The mega-hit action film Wolf Warrior 2 has been selected to represent China in the bid for the Best Foreign Language Film at next year's Oscars.

我们知道bid有“投标,竞标”的意思,这里的in the bid for就表示“参与角逐、竞争”之意。

China has selected mega-blockbuster Wolf Warrior II as its submission for the best foreign-language film category at the 2018 Oscars.

这里的submission跟前面的entry意思接近,也是“提交的作品”的意思,我们平时在网络上填写表格,完成要点“提交”的时候,那个按钮的英文就是submit,是submission的动词形式。

另一部“慰安妇”题材的中国电影《二十二》此前已报名参选本届奥斯卡纪录片单元(compete for the best documentary award)。


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