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刑法完成新一轮大修 刑事责任年龄作出调整

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2020年12月28日

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12月26日,十三届全国人大常委会第二十四次会议表决通过刑法修正案(十一),共48条,针对低龄未成年人犯罪、知识产权侵权等问题,对刑法作出修改完善。
刑法完成新一轮大修 刑事责任年龄作出调整

The amendment stipulates heavier criminal penalties for IPR infringements, raising the maximum prison term for trademark and copyright infringements from seven years to 10 years. The amendment also lowers the minimum age of criminal responsibility to 12 for severe crimes such as murder.

刑法修正案针对侵犯知识产权的犯罪行为规定了更加严格的处罚,将商标及知识产权侵权行为的最高刑期由7年提高至10年。同时,修正案将谋杀等严重犯罪行为的刑事责任年龄降低至12岁。

【单词讲解】

这里的IPR是intellectual property rights的缩写形式,即“知识产权”,最近几年很火的“IP”概念是intellectual property的缩写。IP可以是一个故事,一种形象,一件艺术品,一种流行文化,更多的是指适合二次或多次改编开发的影视文学、游戏动漫等作品。IP剧,是指在有一定粉丝数量基础上的国产原创网络小说、游戏、动漫为题材创作改编而成的影视剧。

刑法修正案规定,

If a juvenile who has reached the age of 12, but is under 14, commits intentional homicide or inflicts an injury that leads to death,or causes severe injury to the person, reducing the person to utter disability by resorting to cruel means, he or she shall bear criminal responsibility upon attestation and approval of the Supreme People's Procuratorate (SPP).

已满12周岁不满14周岁的人,犯故意杀人、故意伤害罪,致人死亡或者以特别残忍手段致人重伤造成严重残疾,情节恶劣,经最高人民检察院核准追诉的,应当负刑事责任。

【单词讲解】

英语中关于“青少年犯罪”有一个固定的说法juvenile delinquency/juvenile offending,juvenile读作[dʒuːvənaɪl],指“未成年、青少年”,也可以用作形容词表示某人“孩子气的、幼稚的”,与childish、silly意思相近,比如:Don't be so juvenile(别那么幼稚了)。Delinquency这个词读作[dɪlɪŋkwənsi],指“违法行为”,尤指青少年的违法行为,实施违法行为的青少年就可以称为delinquent。

Children aged 14-16 can be held criminally liable if they commit serious crimes such as murder, rape, and drug smuggling or trafficking.

已满十四周岁不满十六周岁的人,犯故意杀人、强奸、贩卖毒品等严重罪行的,应当负刑事责任。

增加与生物安全相关规定

To safeguard biosecurity, the law stipulates penalties for illegally implanting gene-edited or cloned human embryos into human bodies or animals. Convicted criminals could face up to seven years of imprisonment.

为了保障生物安全,刑法修正案规定了针对将基因编辑、克隆的人类胚胎植入人体或者动物体内等违法行为的处罚,相关违法人员最高刑期可达7年。

使用兴奋剂入刑

It stipulates that anyone who lures, instigates or cheats athletes into using banned substances in either domestic or international competitions faces up to three years' imprisonment and a fine. Heavier punishments will be given to those organizing or forcing athletes into using banned substances, while knowingly offering banned substances to athletes is also a criminal offence.

修正案规定,引诱、教唆、欺骗运动员使用兴奋剂参加国内、国际重大体育竞赛,或者明知运动员参加上述竞赛而向其提供兴奋剂,情节严重的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处罚金。组织、强迫运动员使用兴奋剂参加国内、国际重大体育竞赛的,依照前款的规定从重处罚。

加大对性侵未成年人犯罪的惩治力度

The amended law says people with special responsibilities, including those guarding, adopting, looking after, educating or offering medical care to juveniles, could be sentenced to up to 10 years in prison if they have sex with girls aged 14 to 16. Further, anyone found to have had sex with girls under the age of 14 will be convicted of rape and face harsher penalties.

修正案规定,对已满十四周岁不满十六周岁的未成年女性负有监护、收养、看护、教育、医疗等特殊职责的人员,与该未成年女性发生性关系的,最高可判处10年有期徒刑。奸淫不满十四周岁的幼女的,以强奸论,从重处罚。

Meanwhile, people who rape girls under the age of 10 will receive a sentence of at least 10 years in prison and could even face life imprisonment or the death penalty.

奸淫不满十周岁的幼女的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。

The amended law also calls for harsher punishment-a sentence of five years or more-for people who have repeatedly committed child molestations, have acted indecently against multiple children, have committed such offenses in public or have molested juveniles in a cruel manner.

猥亵儿童多人或者多次的;聚众猥亵儿童的,或者在公共场所当众猥亵儿童,情节恶劣的,处五年以上有期徒刑。

【相关词汇】

矫治教育 corrective education

青少年犯罪 juvenile delinquency

刑事责任 criminal responsibility

刑事拘留 criminal detention

教育为主、惩罚为辅 education first with punishment as a supporting approach


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