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2019年经济学人:巴托比专栏:男人的世界(1)

所属教程:经济学人(中英对照+MP3)

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2020年11月21日

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Pregnant women have limited mobility. That is obvious to anyone who has had a baby,

孕妇行动不便。任何生过孩子的人都知道

but didn't occur to the founders of Google when they designed their car park.

但当谷歌的创始人们在设计他们的停车场时,他们却没想到这一点。

When Sheryl Sandberg, then head of online sales, became pregnant in 2004,

2004年线上销售负责人雪莉·桑德伯格怀孕了,

she made a simple request: parking spaces for expectant women as close to the building entrance as possible.

她提出了一个简单的要求:孕妇的停车空间尽可能接近大楼入口。

That is just one example of how many aspects of the workplace lack the female perspective.

这只是工作场合的多方面缺乏女性视角的例子之一。

In her brilliant book "Invisible Women: Exposing Data Bias In A World Designed For Men",

在她的作品《Invisible Women: Exposing Data Bias In A World Designed For Men》一书中,

Caroline Criado Perez shows how widespread these subtle biases can be.

卡罗琳·克里亚多·佩雷斯展示了这些微妙的偏见可以有多么普遍。

It starts at the recruitment stage. Women are put off from applying for jobs that use words in their adverts such as "aggressive” or "ambitious".

它始于招聘阶段。招聘广告中使用“有进取心”或“有野心”等字眼会劝退女性申请该工作。

When one company changed its ad to focus on qualities such as enthusiasm and innovation,

当公司的广告改为专注热情和创新等品质,

and used a photo of a woman rather than a man, the proportion of female applicants rose from 5% to 40%.

并使用女性而非男性照片时,女性应聘者的比例会增加5%到40%。

Once you have a job, you must get to the office. Because they often care for children or elderly relatives, women are likelier to make multiple journeys.

一旦你有了一份工作,你必须去办公室。因为她们通常要照顾孩子或老人,所以女性更有可能往返多次。

Those who use public transport often need radial routes whereas most systems favour commuters heading from the suburb to the centre of town.

那些乘坐公共交通的人通常需要径向路线,而大部分交通体系偏向于让通勤者从郊区到市中心。

This means female journeys can be much longer than male ones, making it difficult for them to get to work on time.

这意味着女性的路程比男性路程更长,使得她们难以准点上班。

Women experience more work-related stress than men,

女性会比男性经历更多与工作相关的压力,

according to research by Britain's Health and Safety Executive, and face a particular problem with long working hours.

英国健康与安全管理局的研究表示,且会面对工作时间长的特殊问题。

But a study found that unencumbered people of both sexes (those with few or no caring responsibilities)

但一项研究发现无负担的男女(那些承担较少或不承担照顾老幼责任的人)

could cope equally well with a 48-hour week.

可以同样地好应付每周48小时的工作。

The stress occurred because women struggled to combine their caring responsibilities with work, a problem faced by a smaller number of men.

压力的产生是因为女性努力将她们照顾老幼的责任和工作相结合,只有少数男性面临这个问题。

Those responsibilities may also mean that women find it more difficult to take part in after-work bonding activities like dinners, Ms Criado Perez argues.

那些责任可能也意味着女性发现要参与下班后的团建活动,如聚餐,就更加困难,克里亚多·佩雷斯说到。

Many companies allow workers to put the cost of food and drink at such events on expenses, but not the cost of a babysitter.

很多公司允许员工报销此类聚会的餐费酒水开支,但却不报销保姆的开支。

That is a problem for single parents, and women comprise 80% of that category in America and 90% in Britain.

这对单亲父母是个问题,并且在美国这类女性占80%,在英国为90%。

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