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2019年经济学人:巴托比专栏:男人的世界(2)

所属教程:经济学人(中英对照+MP3)

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2020年11月21日

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When their performance is reviewed, Ms Criado Perez argues that women are criticised for being bossy,

当评论她们的表现时,克里亚多·佩雷斯争辩称,女性因专横、

abrasive or strident, whereas men are encouraged to be more aggressive.

冷酷或严厉而受批评,而男性却被鼓励要更好斗一些。

But if women are warm and friendly, they get criticised for being insufficiently professional.

但如果女性温柔友善,她们又会因不够专业而受批评。

Women's physical health, too, may be affected by male-dominated design. Their bodies absorb chemicals more quickly than men's do.

女性的身体健康也受到男性主宰设定的影响。她们的身体吸收化学物品的速度比男性快。

The long-term effects of inhaled particles on (mostly male) miners have been studied extensively;

吸入颗粒对旷工(大部分为女性)的长期影响已被广泛研究;

those of cleaning products on (mostly female) cleaners have not.

而清洁用品对清洁工(大部分为女性)的研究却没有。

In construction and engineering, tools and safety jackets are designed for male hands and bodies, not female ones.

在建筑和工程业,工具和安全夹克都是按照男性手掌和身材设计的,不是女性。

Bulletproof and stabproof jackets are also designed for men and thus do not fit women comfortably;

防弹夹克和防刺夹克也都是为男性设计的,因此不太适合女性穿着;

a British police officer removed her jacket so she could use a hydraulic ram to enter a flat, only to be stabbed and killed.

一名英国警官脱下了她的警服,这样她就可以用水锤泵进入公寓,结果却被捅死了。

Many men do not realise there is a problem. Those who believe they are objective when recruiting

很多男性没有意识到有问题。但那些自认为在招聘时很客观的人

are nevertheless more likely to hire another man than a woman with identical qualifications, as a paper from 2007 showed.

更可能雇佣另一名男性而不选择一名同等条件的女性,如2007年的一份论文所述。

A similar issue is apparent with race, as Jennifer Eberhardt, a professor at Stanford University,

同样的问题也出现在种族上,如斯坦福大学教授珍尼弗·爱伯哈特

describes in her book "Biased: The New Science of Race and Inequality".

在她的作品《Biased: The New Science of Race and Inequality》一书中所述。

An American study showed that candidates with blacksounding names get fewer callbacks than those with traditional European names.

一项美国研究表明,名字听起来像黑人的候选人得到回复的机会比那些拥有传统欧式名字的人要少。

Even highly qualified African-Americans received fewer calls for interview than whites with lesser qualifications.

即便是高学历的非裔美国人收到面试通知的几率也比资历不高的白人要少。

White people with a criminal record received as many callbacks from employers as black people who had never committed an offence.

有案底的白人收到雇主反馈的几率和没有案底的黑人一样多。

And this was true whether or not the company described itself as an "equal opportunity employer".

不论公司是否称自己的是一家“机会平等的公司”都是如此。

It is natural if you have succeeded in work to assume this was down to your own merits.

如果你在工作中取得了成功,你自然会认为这都是你自己的功劳。

But the existence of hidden biases shows that the playing field is not level.

但隐藏偏见的存在表明竞争环境不公平。

As both authors argue, preventing discrimination depends not on white men discovering their inner liberal

正如两位作者所言,防止歧视不取决于白人男性发现了他们的内心自由

but on decisions being taken by those with broader perspectives.

而是取决于那些拥有更广阔视角的人所采取的决定。

If every executive carries a hammer, it might not occur to them that some jobs need a screwdriver.

如果每个高管都拿着一把锤子,他们可能不会想到一些工作需要一把螺丝刀。

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