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英语口译教程(第二版)--中级 UNIT 7-9

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Unit seven ;
Interpreting Persuasive Speeches English-Chinese Interpretation ;
7-1 The Examination- oriented Education ;
Text for Interpretation ;
Interpret the following passage from English into Chinese: ;
Mr.Chairman, Ladies and gentlemen, ;
The greatest wish of every caring responsible society is ;
to do something important and meaningful ;
to improve the lives of its children. ;
The most obvious way of doing this is to free childhood from ;
the unacceptable burden of examinations ;
and selection created by our educational system. ;
At the lender age of 13 or 14,children are selected and pushed into ;
examination classes which will effectively decide their futures. ;
Then, at the age in their lives when most of them are least receptive to learning, ;
they are forced to sit exams ;
where the penalties for failure are as final as death sentence. ;
The lives of secondary school children are ruled by these exams in this country. ;
Some schools do offer a wide range of interesting subjects, ;
but only for those who have already been labeled as failures. ;
So parents continue to push,pull,threaten and force their children through exams, ;
or search anxiously for schools with "high standards" to do the pushing ;
and forcing for them, because this is what our universities demand. ;
But is there any need for all that?Why do we put such pressure on our young people ;
at a time when the brain is biologically at its least receptive? ;
And we know that if children took the wrong course at the age of 14. ;
then their lives could be ruined. ;
So why do we choose this period in their lives as the time to make or break them? ;
If the pressures of selection at 16 were removed, ;
secondary education could become a different process altogether. ;
From about 13 onwards children could be free to study if they choose; ;
or they could choose to study for part of the lime only. ;
They could spend exactly as long as they wanted doing the subjects ;
they wanted to do.If they wanted to spend half the day ;
in the art rooms or doing drama,that would be their decision. ;
Children complain that their classes are boring, ;
their textbooks are boring,and their teachers are boring. ;
However,the voice of the children is rarely beard; ;
and all too often,when they have to write, ;
they simply write what they know the teacher wants to read. ;
I am deeply convinced that children under a less compulsory system ;
would actually learn more and be more cooperative with adults ;
and authority in general.1 am sure they would be happier and more creative, ;
and therefore more useful to the society. ;
We shouldn't have to spend so much time threatening 13 and 14 year-olds ;
that if they don't study all day,every day, ;
they will end up as failures for the rest of their lives. ;
Therefore,ladies and gentlemen.I'm sure you ;
will agree that you have no choice but to agree with today's motion. ;
The system that exists today is certainly harmful to our children ;
and therefore must be changed.Thank vou. ;
7-2 The Effects of Misleading Advertising ;
Text for Interpretation ;
Interpret the following passage from English into Chinese: ;
I'm speaking to denounce a disease with our modern society, ;
that is,the sex role of misleading advertisements and commercials. ;
Advertising affects all of us throughout our lives. ;
Adolescents,especially female adolescents,are particularly vulnerable, ;
however,because they are new and inexperienced consumers ;
and are the prime targets of many advertisements. ;
Advertisers are fully aware of their role and do not hesitate ;
to take advantage of the insecurities and anxieties of young people, ;
in the guise of offering solutions. ;
A cigarette provides a symbol of independence. ;
A pair of designer jeans or sneakers conveys status. ;
The right perfume or beer resolves doubts about femininity or masculinity. ;
No politician or educator is more pervasive or persuasive ;
than advertising.It teaches us to he consumers, ;
to value material things above all else, to feel that happiness can be bought, ;
that there are instant solutions to life's complex problems, ;
and that products ran fulfill us and meet our deepest human needs. ;
The value of a person, especially the value of a young woman, ;
depends upon the products used. ;
For a woman, conventional beauty is her only attribute. ;
She is supposed to have no lines or wrinkles,no scars or blemishes. ;
She is thin,generally tall and long legged, and above all young. ;
All "beautiful" women in television commercials conform to this norm. ;
The image is artificial and can only be achieved artificially. ;
Desperate to conform to an ideal and impossible standard, ;
many women go to great lengths to manipulate and change their faces and bodies. ;
More than a million dollars is spent every hour on cosmetics in this country. ;
A woman is conditioned to view her face as a mask and her body as an object, ;
as things separate from and more important than her real self. ;
She is constantly in need of alteration, improvement, and disguise. ;
She is made to feel dissatisfied with and ashamed of herself, ;
whether she tries to achieve "the look" or not. ;
Ironically,the heavily advertised products, ;
such as cosmetics and weight-reduction drinks, ;
are even detrimental to physical attractiveness. ;
There is very little emphasis in the media on nutrition and ;
exercise and other important aspects of health and vitality. ;
Adolescent females are also discouraged from growing up and becoming adults. ;
Growing older is the great taboo.Although boys are allowed and ;
encouraged to become mature adults,girls are encouraged to ;
remain little girls, to be passive and dependent, never to mature. ;
Somehow placed in a double bind,they are supposed to be sexy and virginal, ;
experienced and naive, seductive and pure. ;
Misleading advertisements and commercials depict a world in which love ;
and passion are reserved solely for products, ;
in which sexuality becomes a commodity, ;
and in which young women are the worst victims. ;
7-3 The Future Is Ours to Build ;
Text for Interpretation ;
Interpret the following passage from English into Chinese: ;
Indies and gentlemen, History beckons again. ;
We have begun to write a new chapter for peace and progress in our histories, ;
with America and China going forward hand in-hand. ;
We must always he realistic about our relationship, ;
frankly acknowledging the fundamental differences in ideology ;
and institutions between our two societies. ;
Yes,let us acknowledge those differences; let us never minimize them; ;
but let us not be dominated by them. ;
I have not come to China to hold forth on what divides us, ;
but to build on what binds us,1 have not come to dwell on a closed-door past, ;
but to urge that Americans and Chinese look to the beautiful future. ;
I am firmly convinced that,together,we can and will make tomorrow a better day. ;
We may live at nearly opposite ends of the world. ;
We may be distinctly different in language, customs,and political beliefs; ;
but on many vital questions of our time there is little distance ;
between the American and Chinese people. Indeed. ;
I believe if we were to ask citizens all over this world ;
what they desire most for their children, and for their children's children, ;
their answer, in English,Chinese,or any language would likely be the same: ;
We want peace.We want freedom.We want a belter life. ;
Their dreams,so simply stated,represent mankind's deepest aspirations ;
for security and personal fulfillment. ;
And helping them make their dreams come true is what our jobs are all about. ;
We have always believed the heritage of our past is ;
the seed that brings forth the harvest of our future. ;
And from our roots, we have drawn tremendous power from faith and freedom. ;
Our passion for freedom led to the American Revolution. ;
We know each of us could not enjoy liberty for ourselves ;
unless we were willing to share it with everyone else. ;
And we knew our freedom could not be truly safe, ;
unless all of us were protected by a body of laws that treated us equally. ;
Trust the people these three words are not only the heart and ;
soul of American history, ;
but the most powerful force for human progress in the world today. ;
Like China,our people see the future in the eyes of our children. ;
And,like China,we revere our elders. ;
To be as good as our fathers and mothers, we must he better. ;
Over a century ago. Grant,who was then a former president, ;
visited your country and saw China's great potential. ;
"I see dawning," Grant wrote,"the beginning of a change. When it does come, ;
China will rapidly become a powerful and rich nation ... ;
The population is industrious,frugal, intelligent,and quick to learn. " ;
Today,China's economy crackles with the dynamics of change. ;
Unlike some governments,which fear change and fear the future, ;
China is beginning to reach out toward new horizons,and we salute your courage. ;
We Americans have always considered ourselves pioneers, ;
so we appreciate such vitality and optimism. Today, ;
I bring you a message from my countrymen: As China moves forward on this new path. ;
America welcomes the opportunity to walk by your side. ;
I see America and our Pacific neighbors going forward ;
in a mighty enterprise to build strong economies and a safer world. ;
For our part,we welcome this new Pacific tide. ;
Let it roll peacefully on ,carrying a two-way flow of people and ideas ;
that can break down barriers of suspicion and mistrust, ;
and build up bonds of cooperation and shared optimism.The future is ours to build. ;
7-4 The New Beginning of an Old Story ;
Text for Interpretation ;
Interpret the following passage from English into Chinese: ;
Distinguished guests and my fellow citizens, ;
the peaceful transfer of authority is rare in history,yet common in our country. ;
With a simple oath,we affirm old tradition and make new beginnings. ;
I am honored and humbled to stand here, ;
where so many of America's leaders have come before me, ;
and so many will follow.We have a place,all of us,in a long story-- ;
a story we continue, but whose end we will not see. ;
It is the story of a new world that became a friend and liberator of the old, ;
a story of a slave- holding society that became a servant of freedom, ;
the story of a power that went into the world to protect but not possess, ;
to defend but not to conquer.It is the American story — ;
a story of flawed and fallible people, ;
united across the generations by grand and enduring ideals. ;
The grandest of these ideals is an unfolding American promise that everyone belongs, ;
that everyone deserves a chance,that no insignificant person was ever born. ;
Americans are called to enact this promise in our lives and in our laws. ;
And though our nation has sometimes halted, and sometimes delayed, ;
we must follow no other course. ;
While many of our citizens prosper, others doubt the promise. ;
even the justice, of our own country. ;
The ambitions of some Americans are limited by failing schools and ;
hidden prejudice and the circumstances of their birth. ;
And sometimes our differences run so deep,it seems we share a continent, ;
but not a country. We do not accept this, and we will not allow it. ;
Our unity, our union, is the serious work of leaders and citizens in every generation. ;
America,at its best, is a place ;
where personal responsibility is valued and expected. ;
Encouraging responsibility is not a search for scapegoats; ;
it is a call to conscience.And though it requires sacrifice, ;
it brings a deeper fulfillment.We find the fullness of life not only in options, ;
but in commitments. And we find that children and community ;
are the commitments that set us free. ;
Our public interest depends on private character, ;
on civic duty and family bonds and basic fairness,on uncounted, ;
unhonored acts of decency which give direction to our freedom. ;
Sometimes in life we are called to do great things.But as a saint of our times has said, ;
every day we are called to do small things with great love. ;
The most important tasks of a democracy are done by everyone. ;
What you do is as important as anything government does. ;
I ask you to seek a common good beyond your comfort; ;
to defend needed reforms against easy attacks; ;
to serve your nation, beginning with your neighbor. ;
I ask you to be citizens,not subjects; responsible citizens, ;
building communities of service and a nation of character. ;
Americans are generous and strong and decent, not because we believe in ourselves, ;
but because we hold beliefs beyond ourselves. ;
When this spirit of citizenship is missing, ;
no government program can replace it.When this spirit is present, ;
no wrong can stand against it. Never tiring,never yielding, ;
never finishing,we renew that purpose today, ;
to make our country more just and generous, ;
to affirm the dignity of our lives and every life. ;
Sentences in Focus ;
Interpret the following sentences from English into Chinese: ;
1.With a simple oath, we affirm old tradition and make new beginnings. ;
2.I'm speaking to denounce a disease with our modern society, ;
that is,the sex role of misleading advertisements and commercials. ;
3.A caring and responsible society should do something important ;
and meaningful to improve the lives of its children, ;
rather than create heavy academic and psychological hurdens for the children ;
at their tender age of 12,and force them to sit exams where the penalties ;
for failure are as final as death sentence. ;
4.I am deeply convinced that ;
children under a less compulsory system would actually learn more; ;
they would be more creative and cooperative with ;
adults and authority in general. ;
5.In the world today, no political speech or academic lecture ;
is more pervasive or persuasive than advertising. ;
6.Female adolescents are particularly vulnerable to. ;
and have been the prime targets of,many advertisements and commercials. ;
7.Advertisers are fully aware of their role ;
and do not hesitate to take advantage of the insecurities and ;
anxieties of young people,in the guise of offering them ;
solutions to any problems conceivable. ;
8.A consequence of advertising is that it conveys the message ;
that the value of a person is dependent upon the value of products used, ;
and that it makes us feel that happiness can be bought, ;
that there are instant solutions to life's complex problems, ;
and that products can fulfill us and meet our deepest human needs. ;
9.All "beautiful"women in television commercials conform ;
to the norm by which one is supposed to bo thin,generally tall and long legged, ;
and have no lines or wrinkles,and no scars or blemishes. ;
10.Desperate to conform to an ideal and impossible standard,many women, ;
under the influence of advertising,go to great lengths to manipulate ;
and alter their faces and bodies,as if they were things separable ;
from and more important than their real selves. ;
11.Ironically,the heavily advertised products, ;
such as cosmetics and weight-reduction drinks, ;
are even detrimental to physical attractiveness. ;
12.Misleading advertisements and commercials depict a world in which love ;
and passion are reserved solely for products, ;
in which sexuality becomes a commodity, ;
and in which young women are the worst victim. ;
13.We must frankly acknowledge the fundamental differences ;
in ideology and institutions between our two societies. ;
14.I have come to China not to hold forth on what divides us. ;
but to build on what binds us.not to dwell on a closed-door past, ;
but to urge us look to the beautiful future. ;
15.I have always believed the heritage of our past is the ;
seed that brings forth the harvest of our future, ;
16.Today,China's economy crackles with the dynamics of change, ;
and you are beginning to reach out toward new horizons,and we salute your courage. ;
17.Let the Pacific tide roll peacefully on. ;
carrying a two-way flow of people and ideas that can break down barriers of ;
suspicion and mistrust,and build up bonds of cooperation and shared optimism. ;
18.We find the fullness of life not only in options, but in commitments. ;
19.Our public interest depends on private character, ;
on civic duty and family bonds and basic fairness,on uncounted, ;
unhonored acts of decency which give direction to our freedom. ;
Unit 8 说服性口译 ;
Interpreting Persuasive Speeches Chinese-English Interpretation ;
8-1 Acquiring a Second Culture ;
Text for Interpretations ;
Interpret the following passage from Chinese into English: ;
文化是指一个民族的整体 生活方式。这一简单定义 的含义使文化包括了这样 一些内容, ;
即一个民族的风俗, 传统,社会习惯,价值 观,信仰,语言、 思维方式以及日常活动。 ;
文化还包含了文明史。 从广义上说,有两种文 化,即物质文化和精神 文化。 ;
物质文化是具体的、 可见的,而精神文化则 比较蕴蓄、比较抽象。 ;
由于人类语言是文化的 直接表现,所以第二语言 的学习涉及了第二文化的 学习。 ;
第二语言教师应该引导 学生注意并了解他们所 学语言的文化内容。包括 理解外族文化的价值观, ;
掌握外族文化的礼仪, 了解外族文化与本族文化 之间的差异。 ;
随着学生外语学习的深 化,他们会增进对所学语 言民族的文化特征的认 识。 ;
这种开阔了的文化认识 可以涉及文化的所有方 面:外族人的生活方式, 以及外族社会的地理、 ;
历史、经济、艺术和科学 等。我们知道,每个民族 的文化有不同于其他民族 文化的礼仪规范。 ;
因此,学生在上外语课时 应该学习操目标语的民族 那些恰当得体的礼仪规 范, ;
学习如何理解陌生的文化 习俗,学习在与外族人 交际时应有的言谈举止。 ;
8-2 Environmental Protection ;
Text for Interpretation ;
Interpret the following passage from Chinese into English: ;
女士们、先生们: 中国作为一个发展中国 家,面临着发展经济与 保护环境的双重任务。 ;
从国情出发,中国在全面 推进现代化的过程中, 将环境保护视为一项基本 国策, ;
将实现经济持续发展视 为一项重要战略, ;
同时在全国范围内开展污 染防治工作和生态环境 保护活动。 ;
自改革开放以来,中国国 民生产总值的年均增长 率为10%左右, ;
同时环境恶化的状况已基 本得到了控制,在许多地 区还得到了改善。 ;
实践证明,我们协调经济 发展与环境保护两者之 间关系的做法是行之 有效的。 ;
中国作为国际社会中的 成员,在努力保护自己 环境的同时,还积极参与 国际环保事务. ;
促进国际环保合作,并认 真履行了国际义务。 ;
所有这些都充分表明了中 国政府和人们保护全球 环境的诚意和决心。 ;
中国为保护自己的环境作 了哪些努力呢?中国环境 保护的形势又如何呢? ;
概括说来,我们做了以下 几件事: ;
——选择持续发展的实施 战略; 一逐步改进法律和行政 制度; ;
一预防与控制工业污染, 综合整治城市环境; 一大规模地进行国土控管 和农村环保; ;
一保护生态环境,保护 植被,退耕还林,退耕 还草,封山绿化: ;
——加速环境科技的开发 , 一在人民中宣传环保知 识,提高人们对环保道德 与行为准则的认识; ;
一采取强有力的措施促进 环保工作的国际合作。 ;
女士们,先生们,人类在 解决环境与发展问题中 仍面临着大量的难题. 任重而道远。 ;
中国将一如既往,与其他 国家合作,为保护我们 的生存环境, ;
为人类的幸福和繁荣, 为造福下一代而努力。 谢谢! ;
8-3 Meeting the Challenge ;
Text for Interpretation ;
Interpret the following passage from Chinese into English: ;
这个世界每天都在变化。 世界正在不断地调整自 己。变化是当今最流行 的字眼。 ;
我们正处在一个从工业 化社会向服务和信息社会 的转轨过程之中。 ;
同样,中国也在发生变 化,也在调整自己。 ;
中国正处在建立和完善 社会主义市场经济体制 的改革进程中。 ;
中国社会正在改革中变 化,在变化中进行改革。 中国社会的变化, 使许多问题得到解决, ;
同时也产生了一些新的 问题。其中有四个问题对 人民的现在甚至未来的 影响作用最大。 ;
1.人口老龄化。老人和 高龄老人的数量在增加, 儿童的比例—尤其是在 城市中在减少。 ;
这将影响我国的经济发 展,威胁我国保健制度、 退休制度以及其他一些 福利制度的健康发展。 ;
2.就业问题。不断推进 的产业结构调整限制了 就业。服务性行业的增 多, ;
对高技术劳动力需求的 不断增长,国际国内日益 激烈的竞争压力, 农村人口大量流人城市, ;
这些对现阶段以及未来的 就业,对全面提高生活水 平的可能性,都构成了 严重的威胁。 ;
3.对家庭和儿童构成的 威胁。我国离婚率相对 增长, ;
整整一代青年人在独生子 女家庭的环境中成长, 人们频繁的职业和居住 地的变动等等, ;
这些都给家庭和儿童造成 了威胁。 4.对传统社会价值观的 挑战。 ;
中国社会中的拜金主义, 对自我的日益关注以及对 公益事业的淡漠使中国的 许多传统美德受到冲击。 ;
这些问题的存在值得我们 每个人重视.因为它们 会影响到我们每个人的 生活质量。 ;
这些问题渊源于经济和社 会条件的变化,它们是全 国性、甚至是世界性的 问题。 ;
这些问题伴随着都市化和 现代化的进程而产生。 ;
我们无法回避这些问题, 惟一的出路在于学会如 何处理它们。 ;
然而,不断变化着的社会 不仅给我们带来了问题, 也给我们带来了机会。 ;
变化可以被认为是不断产 生的挑战和危机,而挑战 在我们看来则是建设更好 社会的机遇。 ;
汉语中“危机”这个词由 两 个字组成——“危”和“ 机”。 因此,“危机”也孕育着 机会。 ;
中国的社会变更给社会带 来了许多问题,同时也给 人们带来了更多的机遇。 ;
在世界经济日趋一体化 的今天,让我们迎接挑 战,拥抱机遇.承担 责任, ;
共同建设更美好的明天。 ;
8-4 Practicing Martial Art for Your Health ;
Text for Interpretation ;
Interpret the following passage from Chinese into English: ;
欢迎各位来北京武术馆习 武健身。我可不想劝说 任何人,也不打算说服 任何人, ;
因为健身是每个人自己的 事,是为将来作投资。 ;
当然,如果您在寻找可 以健身、减肥、结交朋友 以及了解中国文化的场 所, ;
您找对了地方。您只需在 这里填写一张登记表, 再拿一张会员卡即可。 ;
这些事只需几分钟即 可办完。您在这里可以 欣赏古代格斗术,您也可 以在这里习武。 ;
由中国武术协会创立的 武术馆为您准备了精彩 的、扣人心弦的表演节目 ;
——您除了可以观赏武术 家 的表演外,还可以观赏京 剧节目和杂技表演。 ;
倘若您想有一种身人其境 的体验,中国武术协会将 随时派出最好的教学人 员, ;
我们这里有中国顶尖的武 林高手、身怀绝技的优秀 教头和无懈可击的武术 表演家。 ;
无论您身居何处,您若想 在自家门前学习武术, 中国武术协会都可派出 一流教员, ;
指导个人或团体皆可。 如果您在市场上寻购武术 工具或资料、中国武术协 会也为您准备好了一切, ;
价格从优。我们还有货物 齐全的书店,出售您感 兴趣的一切有关中华武术 的图书资料、 ;
录像带和DVD激光视盘。 女士们,先生们,这里是 您的理想之地,我们愿 为您效劳。 ;
Sentences in Focus ;
Interpret the following sentences from Chinese into English ;
1.文化是指一个民族的 整个生活方式,即一个民 族的风俗、传统、社会 习惯、价值观、信仰、 ;
语言、思维方式以及 日常活动。 ;
2.每个民族的文化有不 同于其他民族文化的礼 仪规范。 ;
3.由于人类语言是文化 的直接表现,所以可以 说, ;
第二语言学习涉及对 所学语言的民族文化特征 的认识和理解。 ;
4.中国作为一个发展中 国家,面临着发展经济与 保护环境的双重任务。 ;
5.中国在全面推进现代 化的过程中,不仅将实现 经济持续发展视为一项重 要战略, ;
同时也将生态环境的保护 视为一项基本国策。 ;
6.中国作为国际社会中 的一员,认真履行国际义 务,积极参与国际环保事 务,促进国际环保合作。 ;
7.我们必须在人民中宣 传环保知识,提高人们对 环保道德与行为准则的 认识。 ;
8.我们在解决环境与发 展问题中仍面临着大量的 难题,任重而道远。 ;
9.中国将一如既往,与 其他国家合作,为保护 我们的生存环境,为人类 的幸福和繁荣, ;
为造福下一代而奋斗。 ;
10.我们正处在一个由 工业化社会向服务与信 息社会转轨的过程中。 ;
11.中国正处在一个摆脱 僵硬的计划经济体制, 建立和完善社会主义市场 经济体制的改革进程中。 ;
12.人口老龄化将影响我 国的经济发展,威胁我国 的保健制度、 ;
退休制度以及其他一些福 利制度的健康发展。 ;
13.不断推进的产业结构 调整使服务性行业增多, 使高科技以及熟练 劳动力的需求增长。 ;
14.拜金主义、对自我的 日益关注以及对公益事业 的淡漠使中国许多传统 美德受到冲击。 ;
15.这些问题渊源于经济 和社会条件的变化,是都 市化和现代化所带来的 问题。 ;
16.不断变化着的社会 不仅给我们带来了问题, 也给我们带来了机会。 ;
17.在世界经济日趋一 体化的今天, ;
让我们迎接挑战,拥抱 机遇,承担责任,共同 建设更美好的未来。 ;
18.您在这里可以欣赏 精彩的、扣人心弦的武术 表演,也可以观赏京剧 节目和杂技表演。 ;
19.我不想说服任何人去 习武健身,因为这是个人 的事,是人们为将来所做 的投资。 ;
Unit 9 Interpreting Academic Speeches English- Chinese Interpretation ;
9-1 The Linguistic System Text for Interpretation ;
Interpret the following passage from English into Chinese: ;
There are as many as three thousand languages which are spoken today. ;
These languages are very different one from another. ;
Indeed,it is primarily the fact that they are ;
so different as to be mutually unintelligible ;
that allows us to call them separate languages. ;
A speaker of one of them, no matter how skillful and fluent, ;
cannot communicate with a speaker of another unless one of them, ;
as we say."learns the other's language." Yet these differences, great as they are, ;
are differences of detail —of the kinds of sounds used ;
and the ways of putting them together. In their broad outlines, ;
in their basic principles,and even in the way they approach ;
certain specific problems of communication, ;
languages have a great deal in common. We are all intimately familiar with ;
at least one language, yet few of us ever stop to consider what we know about it. ;
The words of a language can be listed in a dictionary, ;
but not all the sentences, ;
and a language consists of these sentences as well as words. ;
Speakers use a finite set of rules to produce and understand ;
an infinite set of sentences.These rules comprise the grammar of a language, ;
which is learned when you acquire the language. ;
The grammar of a language includes the sound system, ;
how words may be combined into phrases and sentences, ;
and the way in which sounds and meanings are related. ;
The sounds and meaning of words are related in an arbitrary fashion. ;
That is,if you had never heard the word "grammar", you would not. ;
by its sounds,know what it meant. Language,then, ;
is a system that relates sounds with meanings, ;
and when you know a language,you know this system. ;
This linguistic knowledge, or linguistic competence, ;
is different from linguistic behavior, known as linguistic performance. ;
If you woke up one morning and decided to stop talking, ;
you would still have the knowledge of your language. ;
If you do not know the language,you cannot speak it; ;
but if you know the language,you may choose not to speak. ;
Language is a tool of communication. ;
But if language is defined merely as a system of communication, ;
then language is not unique to humans. ;
We know birds,bees, crabs,spiders,whales, ;
and most other creatures communicate in some way. ;
However,there are certain characteristics of human language ;
not found in the communication.systems of any other species. ;
A basic property of human language is its creative aspect— ;
a speaker's ability to combine the basic linguistic units to ;
form an infinite set of "well-formed",or grammatical, sentences, ;
most of which are novel,never before produced or heard. ;
The grammar of human language can generate infinite messages, ;
a property unique to the human species. ;
9-2 Two Kinds of Brain Text for Interpretation ;
Interpret the following passage from English into Chinese: ;
Good afternoon,ladies and gentlemen.I would like to thank you for ;
inviting me to talk about the subject of ;
the difference between a brain and a computer. ;
The difference between a brain and a computer can be expressed in a single word: ;
complexity. The large mammalian brain is the most complicated thing, ;
for its size,known to us.The human brain weighs three pounds, ;
but in that three pounds are ten billion neurons and a hundred billion smaller cells. ;
These many billions of cells are interconnected in a vastly complicated ;
network that we can't begin to interpret as yet. ;
Even the most complicated computer man has yet built can't compare ;
in intricacy with the brain.Computer switches and components number ;
in the thousands rather than in the billions.What's more, ;
the computer switch is just an on off device- whereas the brain cell is itself possessed of ;
a tremendously complex inner structure. Can a computer think? ;
That depends on what you mean by "think." ;
If solving a mathematical problem is "thinking." ;
then a computer can "think" and do so much faster than a man. ;
Of course,most mathematical problems can be solved quite mechanically ;
by repealing certain straightforward processes over and over again. ;
It is frequently said thai computers solve problems only ;
because they are "programmed" to do so. They can only do what men have them do. ;
One must remember that human beings also can only do what they are "programmed" to do. ;
Our genes "program" us and our potentialities are limited by that "program. " ;
Our "program" is so much more enormously complex,though, ;
that we might like to define "thinking" ;
in terms of our creativity in literature,art.science and technology. ;
In that sense. computers certainly can't think. ;
Surely,though,if a computer can be made complex enough, ;
it can be as creative as we.If it could be made as complex as a human brain, ;
it could be the equivalent of a human brain and do whatever a human brain can do. ;
But how longs will it take to build a computer complex ;
enough to duplicate the human brain? ;
Perhaps not as long as some think. ;
Long before we approach a computer as complex as our brain, ;
we will perhaps build a computer that is at least complex enough ;
to design another computer more complex than itself. ;
This more complex computer could design one still more complex. ;
The point of concern is that mankind is not only creating a servant, ;
but also a threatening rival. ;
9-3 The Biological Revolution ;
Text for Interpretation ;
Interpret the following passage from English into Chinese: ;
Respected Mr. President,Dear faculty and students, ;
Thank you for inviting me to talk about the emerging biological revolution. ;
In his book Brave New World,published in 1932, ;
Aldous Huxley predicted a big biolechnological revolution ;
about to take place; the hatching of people not in wombs but in test tube; ;
the drug which gave people instant happiness; ;
the sensation which was simulated by implanted electrodes; ;
and modification of behavior through the administration of ;
various artificial hormones.With 70 years ;
separating us from the publication of this book, ;
we can see that Huxley's technological predictions ;
are startlingly accurate.Many of the technologies that Huxley envisioned are ;
already here or just over the horizon. But this revolution has only just begun. ;
New breakthroughs in biomedical technology are announced daily; ;
achievements such as the completion of the human genome project ;
portend much more serious changes to come. ;
According to Huxley, the most significant threat posed by ;
contemporary biotechnology is the possibility ;
that it will alter human nature and ;
thereby move us into a "posthuman" stage of history. ;
This is important because human nature exists and defines us as a species ;
with a stable continuity.It is what defines our most basic values. ;
Medical technology offers us in many cases a devil's bargain; ;
longer life,but with reduced mental capacity; ;
freedom from depression,together with freedom from creativity or spirit. ;
It will blur the lino between what we achieve on our own and what we achieve ;
because of the levels of various chemicals in our brains. ;
Consider the following three scenarios,all of which are distinct possibilities ;
that may unfold over the next generation or two. ;
The first has to do with new drugs.We know human personality is plastic. ;
Psychotropic drugs can affect traits like self-esteem ;
and the ability to concentrate.Stolid people can become vivacious; ;
introspective ones extroverts;you can adopt one personality on Wednesday ;
and another for the weekend. In the second scenario, ;
advances in stem cell research allow scientists to ;
regenerate virtually any tissue in the body, ;
so that lift: expectancies are pushed well above 100 years. ;
If you need a new heart or liver, ;
you just grow one inside the chest cavity of a pig or cow; ;
brain damage from Alzheimer's and stroke can be reversed. ;
The only problem is that there are many subtle aspects of human aging ;
that the biotech industry hasn't quite figured out how to fix: ;
people grow mentally rigid and increasingly fixed in their views as they age. ;
Worst of all,they just refuse to gut out of the way.not just of their children, ;
but their grandchildren and great-grandchildren. ;
In a third scenario, people will screen embryos ;
before implantation so as to optimize the kind of children they have. ;
If someone doesn't live up to social expectations, ;
he tends to blame bad genetic choices by his parents rather than himself. ;
Human genes have been transferred to animals and even to plants to ;
produce new medical products;and animal genes have been added to certain embryos to ;
increase their physical endurance or resistance to disease. ;
These will have serious and unexpected consequences. ;
We don't have to await the arrival of human genetic engineering to ;
foresee a time when we will be able to enhance intelligence. ;
memory,emotional sensitivity,and sexuality,as well as reduce ;
aggressiveness and manipulate behavior in a host of other ways. ;
The medical profession is dedicated to the proposition ;
that anything that can defeat disease and prolong life is ;
unequivocally a good thing.The fear of death is one of the deepest ;
and most abiding human passions,so it is understandable ;
that we should celebrate any advance in medical technology ;
that appears to put death off.But people worry about ;
the quality of their lives as well — not just the quantity. ;
Ideally,one would like not merely to live longer ;
but also to have one's different faculties fail as close as possible to ;
when death finally comes,so that one does not ;
have to pass through a period of debility at the end of life. ;
While many medical advances have increased the quality of life ;
for older people,many have had the opposite effect ;
by prolonging only one aspect of life and increasing dependency. ;
Alzheimer's disease — in which certain parts of the brain waste away, ;
leading to loss of memory and eventually dementia — is a good example of this, ;
because the likelihood of getting it rises proportionately with age. ;
At age 65,only one person in a hundred is likely to come down with Alzheimer's; ;
at 85,it is one in six.The rapid growth in the population suffering from ;
Alzheimer's in developed countries is thus a direct result of ;
increased life expectancies,which have prolonged the health of the body ;
without prolonging resistance to this terrible neurological disease. ;
We could find ways to preserve bodily health but would fail ;
to put off age-related mental deterioration. ;
Stem cell research might yield ways to grow new body pans. ;
But without a parallel curer for Alzheimer's, ;
this wonderful new technology would do no more than allow more ;
people to persist in vegetative stales for years longer than is currently possible. ;
The consequences of medical advances might be the world in which ;
people routinely live to be 120,or even up to 150,but the last ;
decades of life in a state of childlike dependence on caretakers. ;
We're still trying to make sense of what is happening. ;
Thank you again for my privilege of speaking at this famous university. ;
 
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