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英语口译教程(第二版)--高级 04

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[00:01.00]英语高级口译资格证书考 试 高级口译教程第二版 第四盒;
[00:34.81]Unit nine Cultural Exchange Text for Interpretation;
[00:45.19]Passage 1 Chines-English Interpretation Text Interpreting;
[00:55.89]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from Chinese into English:;
[01:06.28]女士们,先生们:我愿借 此机会同大家谈一谈中国 人民的一些基本价值观 念。;
[01:15.23]不了解这些就难以把握中 国正在和将要发生的事。;
[01:20.72]中华民族历来尊重人的尊 严和价值。还在遥远的古 代,我们的先人就已提 出“民为贵”的思想,;
[01:30.57]认为“天生万物,唯人为 贵”。一切社会的发展和 进步,都取决于人的展和 进步,;
[01:40.24]取决于人的尊严的维护和 价值的发挥。今天中国所 焕发出来的巨大活力,;
[01:47.08]是中国人民拥有广泛自 由、民主的生动写照。 中国在公元1世纪人口就 已达到过6000万左右,;
[01:57.17]众多人口的衣食住行,几 千年来一直是中国历代政 府所要解决的首要人权 问题。;
[02:05.26]今天的中国是一个有12亿 人口的发展中大国,必须 首先保障最广大人民的生 存权和发展权,;
[02:14.74]不然一切其他权利都无从 谈起。中国确保12亿多人 的生存权和发展权,;
[02:22.83]这是对世界人权进步事业 的重大贡献。集体人权与 个人人权、;
[02:29.24]经济社会文化权利与公民 政治权利紧密结合和协调 发展,;
[02:34.59]这是适合中国国情因而是 中国人权事业发展的必然 道路。;
[02:40.45]中华民族历来坚持独立自 主的民族精神和发展道 路。中国人民独立自主当 作立国之本,;
[02:51.56]在5000多年的不懈奋斗中 创造了灿烂的中华文明, 并在近代反抗外来侵略、;
[02:58.49]实现民族解放的斗争中自 立自强,最终掌握了自己 的命运。独立自主、自力 更生,同学习外国,;
[03:09.09]吸取世界文明的成果,是 相互结合、相辅相成的。 中华民族的先人们早就懂 得这个道理。;
[03:18.80]中国的汉唐时代,都曾在 这方面留下宝贵的历史经 验,当时既是中国自强不 息发展自己的昌盛时期,;
[03:30.14]也是积极开展对外交流, 广泛吸收外来进步文化的 时期。;
[03:36.19]今天,中国人民坚持走自 己的路,进行经济政治文 化建设,;
[03:42.51]把祖国建设成为一个初步 繁荣昌盛的社会主义国 家。同时吸收和借鉴世界 一切先进文明成果,;
[03:52.04]这些文明成果对于中国的 发展也起了重要的促进作 用。;
[03:57.43]当然,这种对外国文明的 吸收和借鉴决不能是简单 的模仿。;
[04:03.66]中国既不能照抄西方资本 主义国家的发展模式,也 不能硬搬其他国家建设社 会主义模式,;
[04:11.85]而必须走适合自己国情的 发展道路。这就是建设有 中国特色社会主义的道 路。;
[04:19.94]中国人民将坚定不移地沿 着这条强国之路走下去。;
[04:24.82]中华民族历来珍惜各民族 大团结和祖国统一。中国 的56个民族,;
[04:31.09]从古代开始就在华夏大地 上劳动和繁衍,经过长期 的相互帮助、相互学习, 形成了统一的多民族国家;
[04:42.58]维护民族的团结统一,是 中华民族伟大复兴的根本 基础,是全国各族人民的 的根本利益所在。;
[04:52.57]新中国成立以后,中国在 少数民族聚居的地方实行 区域自治,各民族的权益 受到宪法保障,;
[05:02.57]民族地区的社会和经济不 断发展,各民族之间的平 等、团结、互助关系不断 加强。;
[05:10.28]中国民主革命的伟大先行 者孙中山先生早就指出: “中国是一个统一的国家,;
[05:17.91]这一点已牢牢地印在我国 的历史意识之中,正是这 种意识,;
[05:22.04]才使用权我们能作为一个 国家而被保存下来。;
[05:27.95]”中华文明绵绵几千年, 国家统一始终是中国历史 的主流。;
[05:35.34]维护国家统一,是中国人 民世世代代极其珍视的崇 高目标。;
[05:41.57]世界上只有一个中国, 实现中国的完全统一是全 体中国人民的共同愿望。;
[05:49.99]中华民族历来爱好自由和 平。中国人民始终希望天 下太平、希望同各国人民 友好相处。;
[05:59.33]“亲仁善邻”一直为我们的 先人们奉为国之宝箴。中 国人民在近代饱受战争和 被侵略的痛苦,;
[06:08.91]更深感自由与和平的珍 贵。任何一个国家的建设 和发展,都需要一个和平 稳定的国际国内环境。;
[06:18.72]任何一个国家和民族的自 由,都是一切个人自由的 前提和基础。;
[06:24.81]我们希望各国人民都生活 在没有战争和暴力的世界 里,;
[06:29.97]希望各国人民都能享有不 被人压迫、歧视和欺凌的 自由。;
[06:36.34]中国人民选择和实践的社 会主义发展道路和各项基 本的内外政策,源于现代 中国历史发展的必然,;
[06:45.77]也源于中华民族百年来形 成的优良民族传统,因而 具有历史和现实的充分依 据和牢固基础。;
[06:55.40]我们的目标是,到中华人 民共和国成立一百周年 时,基本实行现代化,;
[07:02.28]把中国建成富强民主文明 的社会主义国家。;
[07:06.51]中国人民有信心克服和战 胜前进道路上出现的各种 困难和风险,实现我们的 伟大目标。;
[07:15.48]Passage 2 English-China Interpretation Text Interpreting;
[07:27.29]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from English into Chinese:;
[07:36.40]As the fifth of the lecture series "The Greatest Arts of the Past Millennium",;
[07:42.49]I'd like to introduce briefly Australia's Sydney Opera House,;
[07:47.14]which is one of the landmark buildings of modern times, and its creator,;
[07:52.58]the reclusive great Danish architect Jorn Utzon.;
[07:57.27]The Sydney Opera House is the mother and father of all modern landmark buildings.;
[08:03.04]Although its architect was forced to resign;
[08:05.97]and it was never properly finished inside,;
[08:08.90]the opera house has come to define not only a city,;
[08:12.71]but also an entire nation and continent.;
[08:16.61]Beyond that, it is a global expression of cultural modernity.;
[08:22.33]Everyone in the world with media access knows what the Sydney Opera House looks like;
[08:28.14]First designed in 1957 and finally declared complete in 1973,;
[08:34.93]the opera house was the single best-known modern building;
[08:38.74]in the world until the arrival;
[08:40.97]of Frank Gehry's equally extraordinary Bilbao Guggenheim in 1997.;
[08:48.46]But it will outlive the Guggenheim as an international architectural icon;
[08:53.62]— because it did all the difficult work first.;
[08:57.11]In the pantheon of classic modern buildings,;
[09:00.13]Utzon's creation has the status of myth.;
[09:03.80]The myth states that the unknown architect, then in his early thirties,;
[09:09.75]submitted rough sketches to the competition judges,;
[09:13.47]that he ignored most of the rules,;
[09:16.35]that his design was only selected after being plucked at the last moment;
[09:21.47]from the reject pile by one of the judges, and that the design was unbuildable.;
[09:27.51]But Sydney is remarkable for another reason: it is a complete one-off.;
[09:33.74]It does not fit into any stylistic or chronological category.;
[09:38.85]None of Utzon's other buildings — churches, government departments,;
[09:43.92]houses —looks anything like it, and architects today;
[09:48.43]who try to copy his concept always end up looking very second- rate indeed.;
[09:54.15]It is "modern", certainly, but it is an expressive modernism;
[09:58.29]that was quite at odds with the rectilinear "international style" of its time.;
[10:04.84]It has more in common with the work;
[10:07.40]of the American maverick genius Frank Lloyd Wright,;
[10:11.07]for whom Utzon worked briefly. Of course, its unique location is an enormous help,;
[10:17.25]sitting as it does on a promontory with water on three sides;
[10:22.13]and the famous Sydney Harbour Bridge as a picture-postcard backdrop.;
[10:26.83]But Utzon masterfully exploited the site as nobody else could.;
[10:32.27]Utzon left Australia in high dudgeon in 1966, never to return,;
[10:38.96]before he could finish designing the interior.;
[10:42.08]As with Sir Christopher Wren at the world-renowned St Paul's Cathedral,;
[10:47.19]Utzon was humiliated and removed from;
[10:50.03]overseeing the final stages of his masterwork.;
[10:53.42]But for all his manifold difficulties,;
[10:56.31]which other contemporary architect can claim an equivalent achievement;
[11:01.00]The Sydney Opera House showed us that anything is possible,;
[11:05.18]and it demonstrated that sheer,;
[11:06.44]seductive beauty for its own sake is nothing to be ashamed of,;
[11:11.32]but everything to be proud of.;
[11:14.72]Extra Text for Practice;
[11:19.55]Passage 1 Chinese-English Interpretation;
[11:27.36]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from Chinese into English:;
[11:37.36]现代化的交通与传播手段 使世界变得越来越小,整 个国际社会好似一个巨大 的地球村。;
[11:48.79]有着不同文化背景的地球 村的村民们在文化交流和 文化冲撞中和睦相处。;
[11:57.35]当代社会的任何一个民族 其先进文化不是孤立的现 象,而是与其他民族的文 化进行广泛交流的产物.;
[12:10.46]当然,任何一个民族的文 化,其根基与主流必须具 有这个民族的鲜明特征。;
[12:19.34]文化交流不是让外国文化 吞没自己的文化,而是为 了丰富和充实本民族的 文化。;
[12:29.10]通过文化交流,不同的文 化可以相互学习,相互影 响.在文化领域里,相互影 响是一种非常复杂的现象;
[12:41.98]打个比喻,吸取外国文化 是一个入口、咀嚼和消化 的过程。;
[12:49.74]我们应该采取去伪存真、 去粗存精、多出优进、 抵御腐蚀原则。;
[12:59.27]我不认为各种文化的不同 特点和风格会因此而消 失,相反,不同的文化可 以取长补短,互为补充。;
[13:12.52]事实上,随着中国经济 的发展和人民生活水平的 提高,;
[13:19.03]中国人民的视野开阔了, 艺术鉴赏力也起了变化。 他们的兴趣变得广泛了。;
[13:28.05]他们不仅关心中国传统文 化艺术和现代文化艺术, 而且有了解世界文化发展 趋势的愿望,;
[13:38.74]有了解不同艺术风格和 流派的愿望。;
[13:43.25]我们在吸取外国文化优秀 成果的同时,不能满足于 一味模仿的做法。;
[13:50.97]沉溺于简单的模仿会使自 己失去创作力,无法达到 新的艺术高度,无法向世 界推出自己的优秀作品。;
[14:02.08]简单模仿全然不能与新意 划等号。新意是现代风格 与传统风格的结合,;
[14:11.38]是外国特色与本民族特色 的结合,是艺术性与教育 性的结合。;
[14:20.12]Passage 2 English-Chinses Interpretation;
[14:28.06]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from English into Chinese:;
[14:37.46]Today I'd like to address the topic of;
[14:42.01]"The United States as a Multicultural Society" as much as I understand it,;
[14:49.17]and in that connection I'd like to say a few words about the implications;
[14:55.68]of multiculturalism for cross-cultural communication.;
[15:01.35]Some people say that the United States is "a melting pot",;
[15:06.98]while others say it is "a salad platter." In my view, rather than a melting pot,;
[15:15.58]the United States today may be more accurately described;
[15:20.69]as a multicultural society in which acculturation is defined more;
[15:27.48]in terms of "integration" than "assimilation." In other words,;
[15:34.22]people in the United States today can maintain some original cultural identity;
[15:40.03]and values and participate meaningfully in the larger society.;
[15:46.31]The melting pot myth is never true.;
[15:50.21]The United States has always been a heterogeneous society;
[15:55.60]with cohesion based partly on mutual respect;
[15:59.32]and partly on one group's values dominating all others.;
[16:04.34]The salad platter analogy suggests that the elements;
[16:08.44]of the salad maintain their own taste or identity;
[16:12.90]but exist together to create the whole.;
[16:16.71]Some people argue that multiculturalism has not meant the integration;
[16:22.75]of diverse cultures, but an acceptance by the dominant ethnic category;
[16:28.56]of the "exotic" foods, dress and rituals of the cultural minorities.;
[16:34.56]I think that the debate over multiculturalism is essentially;
[16:39.77]the debate over whose values will be imposed. In a true multicultural society,;
[16:46.88]individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds exist;
[16:51.02]without socially enforced power differences.;
[16:54.18]But that is not the case, at least, with the United States.;
[16:59.20]Perhaps there has never been such a thing as monocultural society.;
[17:05.15]Indeed, each person is of many cultures simultaneously .;
[17:10.50]One has a sexual identity, a racial identity, a religious identity,;
[17:16.40]a class identity, a school identity, an identity from the friends one keeps,;
[17:22.87]a family identity, a geographic identity, and so on.;
[17:28.17]We tend to be relatively unconscious of other cultures, and unfortunately,;
[17:34.49]much hostility is created by our ignorance of other cultures;
[17:38.30]and the failure to recognize their existence.;
[17:41.93]In many societies there is hierarchy of status and power.;
[17:47.97]The power elites need not be the majority.;
[17:52.43]The power elites are the individuals who have influence within the social, political,;
[17:58.06]legal, economic, and religious institutions In the United States,;
[18:04.10]the power elite controls both the material resources and goods of the country;
[18:09.77]and the means and manner of production and distribution.;
[18:14.42]In the United States, when you speak of upper,;
[18:18.19]middle and lower classes you speak not of national origin or ethnicity but of power;
[18:25.90]and control over material resources.;
[18:28.93]Economic power in the United States today is largely held by youthful,;
[18:34.69]able-bodied White males.;
[18:37.43]Whites in the United States recognize the existence of a White culture.;
[18:42.69]White culture resulted from a synthesis of ideas,;
[18:47.01]values and beliefs inherited from European ethnic groups in the United States.;
[18:53.29]As the dominant culture in the United States,;
[18:56.50]White culture is the foundation of social norms and organizations.;
[19:01.93]In terms of cross- cultural communication,;
[19:05.89]the dominant White culture includes communication patterns of Standard English,;
[19:12.02]direct eye contact, limited physical contact, and controlled emotions.;
[19:19.32]Nondominant groups are supposed to follow that pattern in one way or another.;
[19:25.51]A multicultural society, therefore,;
[19:28.34]faces the communication challenges presented;
[19:31.83]by multiple language use, contrasting values, and cultural prejudice.;
[19:39.54]Unit ten Science Report Text for Interpretation;
[19:49.62]Passage 1 Chines-English Interpretation Text Interpreting;
[20:01.00]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from Chinese into English:;
[20:11.33]女士们、先生们: 我很高兴在这里向各位简 单介绍一下我国的传统医 学,即中医。;
[20:23.07]中医起源于6000年前的神 农氏时代,;
[20:27.77]这位著名的中国古代药王 所生活的时代被认为是中 医史上的萌芽阶段。;
[20:36.31]战国时期的中医理论著作 《黄帝内经》标志着中国 医学独特的理论体系的形 成。;
[20:46.26]《黄帝内经》至今仍然被 视为指导中医的理论基 础。;
[20:54.18]中医名著《神农本草经》 总结了秦朝前的经验, 共载药物365种,按主治、 功用和毒性分成三大类,;
[21:09.57]是中国的一中历史最悠久 的药典。;
[21:14.95]中医学在长期的发展过程 中,逐渐形成了一整套医 学原则和观点。;
[21:23.42]首先,中医认为“万物人 为贵”。中医将“救死扶 伤”视为职业道德规范。;
[21:33.44]第二,中医注重无病防 病,强调以食补保健来延 缓衰老,减少疾病。;
[21:44.63]第三,中医理论认为, 社会环境与自然环境相互 作用、互为依存,;
[21:53.47]人的身心也是一种相互作 用、互为依存的关系。人 体是由各种器官和不同功 能系统组成的有机整体。;
[22:06.39]因此,中医师是通过了解 人与自然、人与社会、人 体与心理之间的关系,;
[22:15.48]以及人体各部位之间的种 种关系来诊断病人的 疾病。;
[22:21.91]第四,中医学认为,阴与 阳存在于人体内,相互作 用、互为依存。根据中医 的哲学观,;
[22:35.76]阴阳两者对立制约、互根 互用、消长平衡、相互转 化。;
[22:43.43]阴阳平衡是健康的要素, 阴阳失衡会影响健康,导 致养病。因此,中医十分 重视调节阴阳以保平衡。;
[22:56.97]最后,中医认为人体内 的系列运动贯穿于人的一 生,这种系列运动在西医 叫作“新陈代谢”。;
[23:09.09]如果这种运动受阻,就会 出现异常情况,人就会 得病。这是中医关于疾病 防治的一个指导思想。;
[23:20.16]在长期的实践和发展中,;
[23:23.50]中医形成了一个以中草药 为核的完整独立的理论体 系和疗效独特的临床治疗 方法,;
[23:34.07]除了中草药外还包括针灸 疗法、按摩推拿和气功疗 法。;
[23:41.80]今天,中医以其独特的疗 效和科学本质赢得全世界 的广泛赞誉。我国积极发 展中医,;
[23:52.99]鼓励中西医结合诊断和治 疗。目前,全国各地约有 2,500家中医医院,;
[24:02.20]拥有一支50多万人的中医 专业队伍。在中国100万 家综合医院中,;
[24:10.80]大部分都设有中医部, 其外还有100多家中医机 构和研究中心。我相信, 我国的中医研究前程似锦;
[24:26.63]Passage 2 English-Chinese Interpretation Text interpreting;
[24:39.67]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from English into Chinese:;
[24:49.81]Lades and gentlmen, I am very happy to meet with so many scholars;
[24:56.18]at this annual astrobiology conference;
[24:59.52]in the beautiful city of San Francisco.;
[25:03.42]I am also very happy that we will be discussing some of the big issues,;
[25:09.04]like where we came from and whether we have companions beyond Earth.;
[25:15.72]Here I'd like to share with you some of our recent discoveries.;
[25:20.67]As regards the origin of life on earth,;
[25:24.81]we used to believe that when life began on earth,;
[25:28.77]the atmosphere contained nitrogen, hydrogen and other gases but no oxygen.;
[25:36.56]Consequently,the sun's rays prevented life from developing on land.;
[25:42.62]That explained why the first living organisms developed only under the sea.;
[25:49.67]Under the influence of photosynthesis,;
[25:53.38]the oxygen in the atmosphere increased and life expanded.;
[25:59.06]Complex living organisms developed. As the oxygen in the atmosphere increased,;
[26:07.29]life, which depends on the equilibrium of the atmosphere,;
[26:12.60]was possible on the surface of the earth.;
[26:16.69]Recently, we have come up with a very different hypothesis.;
[26:22.50]We believe that hundreds of millions of years ago,;
[26:27.20]a meteor crashed into a then-lifeless planet.;
[26:31.40]Embedded in the meteor were carbon compounds;
[26:35.48]that were to become the seeds of all life on earth.;
[26:39.63]Our current hypothesis is that there was a seeding from elsewhere.;
[26:46.24]Let's say a meteor that had originated in Mars landed in the Antarctic,;
[26:52.24]and it contained evidence of life.;
[26:55.76]We often ask why we are here, how life started, and if we are alone in the universe.;
[27:04.42]These fundamental questions are often addressed by religion;
[27:09.31]and by our sense of aesthetics, by spiritual feelings, feelings of values.;
[27:17.10]But I think science can contribute to the best answers to these questions.;
[27:23.90]In general, scientists are responsible to inform the public,;
[27:29.15]to find out what they want,;
[27:31.63]and to answer the questions that the public wants to know about nature.;
[27:37.25]Last month,we observed the Leonid meteor showers,;
[27:42.38]which occur in every November when Earth passes through the debris shed;
[27:47.39]by the comet Tempel- Tuttle. We were aboard two U.S.;
[27:52.40]Air Force craft that flew at night from the United Kingdom to Israel,;
[27:58.58]then back through the Azores to Florida.;
[28:01.92]The path allowed us to observe the meteors — some no bigger than a grain of sand —;
[28:08.60]from an altitude of 11-and-a-half kilometers.;
[28:13.67]Images of the meteors were fed through infrared spectro- graphic-instruments;
[28:20.22]that can detect the unique chemical fingerprints;
[28:23.62]of complex organic molecules of the type that may have "seeded" life on earth.;
[28:30.06]Our spectrographic instruments caught a meteor "in the act";
[28:35.00]of disseminating organic molecules.;
[28:38.28]We have a list of perhaps 100 carbon-containing compounds;
[28:43.23]that have been dentified. These are the building blocks of life.;
[28:48.30]We use the term "pre-biotic life" to describe them.;
[28:52.69]So that is a major interest of astrobiology —;
[28:56.77]to search for the chemicals that exist in the universe outside of earth;
[29:01.77]that could lead to life, probably in some sort of continuous process.;
[29:09.01]We may ask ourselves if we are ready, psychologically,;
[29:13.03]to accept the possibility of life elsewhere.;
[29:16.99]We must recognize that what we're doing is simply part of the trend;
[29:22.43]that began with Copernicus and Galileo,;
[29:26.38]who first showed us that Earth is not the center of the universe.;
[29:31.21]That, and later discoveries that our galaxy is one of billions —;
[29:36.03]with countless possibilities for life — indicates;
[29:39.93]that we're part of something truly grand, in every sense of that word.;
[29:45.24]That's all for my presentation. Thank you for your attention.;
[29:50.31]Extra Text for Practice;
[29:55.88]Passage 1 Chinese-English Interpretation;
[30:03.61]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from Chinese into English:;
[30:13.19]女士们,先生们:;
[30:16.40]几百年来,中国向全世界 传播了其在五千年的历史 长河中所积累的医疗保健 知识。;
[30:26.18]今日中国的传统保健方 法,如太极拳、气功和按 摩等,正日益显示其重 要性。;
[30:36.93]中国人认为,太极是天地 万物之根源.太极分为阴 阳二气,阴阳二气产生木 火、土、金、水这五行。;
[30:56.53]五行代表或作用于人体 器官,即火对心,木对 肝,土对脾胃,金对肺, 水对肾。;
[31:10.01]阴阳化合而生万物,太极 则代表了阴阳调和。;
[31:17.19]据《易经》记载,保持身 心平衡是健康的要素。;
[31:24.05]中医理论著作《黄帝内 经》开卷第一章提出了心 神怡然以保气防病的理 论,;
[31:33.88]这一理论已成为当今气功 健身研究的基础理论。太 极拳、气功和按摩这健身 三法,;
[31:44.45]就是以《易经》和《黄帝 内经》提出的理论为 基础。;
[31:50.88]长期以来,世界只知道中 国有指南针、火药、造纸 和活字印刷四大发明。;
[32:00.90]几乎很少有人知道中国已 发现了经络的存在。经络 是指人体内血气运行通路 的主干与分支网络,;
[32:14.07]针刺穴位散布其间。北京 经络研究中心通过现代科 学方法,已经证实了经络 的存在。;
[32:25.88]经络的发现无疑是为 《易经》和《黄帝内经》 的理论提供了强有力的 佐证。;
[32:34.16]今天世界各地学打太极 拳、学做气功以及按摩的 人越来越多。;
[32:43.75]这些健身之法不仅对人体 健康有效,而且对心脑健 康、性功能健康以及减 肥,都有很好的疗效。;
[32:56.86]Passage 2 English-Chinese Interpretation;
[33:04.77]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from English into Chinese:;
[33:14.35]My topic today is "The Car and Air Pollution".;
[33:19.30]In particular, I want firstly to discuss the ways in which the car causes air pollution;;
[33:26.17]and secondly,how we can control or reduce air pollution from the car.;
[33:32.04]First, then, how does the car cause air pollution?;
[33:36.74]What happens is that the car's internal combustion engine;
[33:41.13]is a kind of chemical factory on a small scale.;
[33:45.21]It uses a mixture of petrol and air, and this mixture explodes and burns,;
[33:51.39]to produce the energy which propels the car. But while this is happening,;
[33:56.96]many complicated chemical reactions are taking place.;
[34:01.22]In particular, part of the petrol-air mixture is not completely burned up,;
[34:06.91]and so the exhaust gases from the engine contain some very dangerous chemicals,;
[34:13.10]such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, lead and hydrocarbons.;
[34:19.59]This is the situation, then,and it's going to get much worse,;
[34:24.29]unless we do something about it.;
[34:26.70]So—let's focus our attention now on ways of controlling;
[34:31.34]or reducing the amount of air pollution caused by the car.;
[34:35.72]I want to mention five possibilities.;
[34:39.37]First, we can discourage the use of cars.;
[34:43.39]For example,we can put higher taxes on petrol,;
[34:47.54]and on cars themselves —especially the larger ones that use a lot of petrol.;
[34:53.35]Second, we can encourage alternative methods of transport,;
[34:58.05]both between and within urban areas.;
[35:01.20]For instance, we can make train and bus services cheaper and more convenient.;
[35:06.89]And we can build a mass transit system in large cities,;
[35:11.22]particularly an underground railway system such as those in London, New York,;
[35:17.21]Moscow and Tokyo.;
[35:19.69]Next, we can use a different and cleaner fuel for the internal combustion engine.;
[35:26.12]Possibilities in this regard include natural gas,;
[35:30.82]fuel cells (i.e., batteries), and liquid hydrogen.;
[35:36.13]Fourth, we can replace the present internal combustion engine with other designs.;
[35:42.56]There are several possibilities being researched at present, such as electric,;
[35:48.19]gas turbine, and "steam" engines.;
[35:51.72]However, each of these engine designs has its own disadvantages.;
[35:56.72]Last but not least, we are trying to control the emissions;
[36:01.36]from the internal combustion engine much more strictly.;
[36:05.13]This, for example, is a catalytic converter,;
[36:08.66]which converts the most dangerous ingredients of the car exhaust into water;
[36:13.60]and harmless gases. These are five possible ways,then,;
[36:18.05]of controlling air pollution caused by cars.;
[36:21.64]As I'm sure you can see,there are problems with each of these ways;;
[36:25.78]but at least they're a step in the right direction.;
[36:28.63]Probably the best answer is .a synthesis of all five.;
[36:34.56]Passage 3 Chinese-English Interpretation;
[36:41.98]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from Chinese into English:;
[36:51.51]野生大熊猫的数目已不已 足1000只,大熊猫濒临绝 迹.拯救国宝大熊猫已成 为中国人民的共同心愿。;
[37:06.96]最近我们将大熊猫体细胞 的一个细胞核植入一兔子 的去核卵子里,培育出一 个大熊猫胚胎。;
[37:19.02]现在我们将精力集中在克 隆大熊猫的第二步上,即 把胚胎植入另一只动物的 子宫里生长。;
[37:30.77]自20世纪90年代初以来, 我们用人工授精的增加大 熊猫数量。;
[37:39.30]也就是说,我们通过注入 性激素控制母本的体温、 排卵期,以得卵子。;
[37:47.90]然后让父本的精子与卵子 结合,培植新的生命。;
[37:55.38]在过去的6年中,我们用 这种广泛已繁殖出6对双 胞胎和7个单胞胎。;
[38:04.22]但是就整个大熊猫家族的 命运来说,人工授精的方 法远未令人满意。;
[38:13.25]此外,通常大熊猫产生的 卵子和精子数量很少,所 以当雌性大熊猫无法交配 时,;
[38:23.57]这种方法也就起不了 作用。;
[38:27.41]1997年,开始实施一个更 为雄心勃勃的计划—— 克隆大熊猫。;
[38:35.69]1998年中国科学院在这个 项目上投入专款,并在 1999年得到了科学技术部 的资助。;
[38:46.82]这项实验旨在将来大熊猫 体细胞的细胞核植入去核 卵子以造就一个全新的 生命。;
[38:57.33]我们注意到,畸形、死胎 和夭折现象经常发生在 克隆动物身上。;
[39:06.11]统计数字显示,在自然分 娩中畸形基因不到1%,试 管婴儿的畸形胚胎基因 为15%,;
[39:18.11]而克隆动物的畸形胚胎基 因为50%。真正的问题是 克隆大熊猫的第二步,;
[39:28.31]即在另一种动物的子宫里 培育新的大熊猫。目前我 们还无法肯定哪一种动物 是理想的“代母体”。;
[39:39.87]也许你会问,胚胎既然是 在兔子的卵子里培养的, 那么兔子应该是“母体”。;
[39:48.34]然而问题是,兔子的子宫 对于大熊猫幼体来说实在 太小了。此外,大熊猫的 妊娠期为87天至170天,;
[40:01.51]而兔子的妊娠期却不到30 天。兔子怎能怀上大熊 猫?;
[40:09.18]另一个问题是,即大熊猫 克隆出来,它只有亲本的 DNA。因此,在某种程度 上,;
[40:20.06]克隆方法是无法保护大熊 猫的。如果幼体大熊猫与 “代母亲”一起生活,;
[40:28.66]譬如说,与狗母亲或熊 母亲一起生活,学习 “母亲”的行为和习性,;
[40:36.63]那么它只难成为一只有着 大熊猫身体的狗或熊。如 果是这样的话,克隆大熊 猫还有什么意义呢?;
[40:48.69]不管怎么样,克隆大熊猫 还是引起了人们的极大兴 趣。无情的事实是,大熊 猫的繁殖能力太弱,;
[41:00.38]大熊猫已濒临灭绝!当 然,克隆大熊猫并不意味 着取代大熊猫的自然繁 殖。;
[41:10.39]恰恰相反,克隆只是对自 然繁殖和人工繁殖的一种 补充。;
[41:17.32]我们认为,只要克隆方法 有利于保护大熊猫,我们 就要尝试。;
[41:24.37]即使我们获得一个克隆的 大熊猫,我们仍然需要做 更多的实验来完善克隆技 术。;
[41:32.47]克隆技术目前仍处于研究 阶段,而不是生产阶段。 我们科学家所要做的是在 实验中学习,;
[41:43.41]通过学习改进我们的研 究。克隆大熊猫是发展和 改进克隆技术的一种 方法。;
[41:52.13]这种方法一旦成功,可以 用来拯救其他一些濒临灭 绝的动物。;
[41:59.30]当然我们还应该充分意识 到,大熊猫生存的主要威 胁不是来自于大熊猫的繁 殖能力,;
[42:08.64]而是来自于人类对大熊猫 自然生态环境的破坏。 这是任何一种克隆技术都 无法弥补的。;
[42:18.47]我国政府早已明令禁止在 长江中上游砍伐树木,这 对保护大熊猫及其生态环 境无疑是一个良好的开端;
[42:30.53]随着大熊猫的自然生态环 境的不断改善,随着克隆 技术的不断完善,大熊猫 一定会生存下去。;
[42:40.54]我们对大熊猫的未来充 满信心。;
[42:45.61]Passage 4 English-Chinese Interpretation;
[42:50.74]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from English into Chinese:;
[42:57.61]Traditional Chinese medicine says that good health is associated;
[43:02.99]with the balance of qi — an energy force that flows through the body.;
[43:09.54]Qi can be hindered or helped by yin and yang — opposing forces that, when balanced,;
[43:18.88]work harmoniously together. According to traditional theory,;
[43:25.18]the goal of acupuncture is to promote the flow of qi by keeping yin;
[43:31.74]and yang in balance — and this is done by inserting needles;
[43:37.74]at various points along primary channels and meridians that crisscross the body.;
[43:45.34]In China, acupuncture is used to alleviate postoperative pain.;
[43:52.14]Medical experts believe that inserting needles into the body;
[43:57.77]at precise points can stimulate nerves;
[44:01.36]that cause the brain to release its natural pain-killing chemicals.;
[44:06.36]There is sufficient evidence in the literature;
[44:10.14]that shows a positive effect between the technique;
[44:14.03]of acupuncture itself — stimulating these acupuncture points in the skin —;
[44:19.72]and the release of substances in the brain;
[44:23.30]which we know to be associated with the relief of pain.;
[44:28.75]The U. S. National Institute of Health has endorsed acupuncture;
[44:34.56]for treating certain types of nausea, vomiting and pain,;
[44:39.75]such as the nausea sort of sickness that a patient suffers;
[44:44.20]when given an anesthetic for surgery, or treated with chemotherapy,;
[44:49.71]or the vomiting or nausea that accompanies pregnancy,;
[44:54.59]or post-operative dental pain.;
[44:57.44]We have come to the very clear-cut sort of decision;
[45:02.81]that treatment under these circumstances really works.;
[45:07.27]Our principal concern in evaluating acupuncture's effectiveness;
[45:13.02]has been the so-called Placebo effect — the possibility;
[45:17.78]that beneficial outcomes derive not from the treatment itself,;
[45:22.11]but from the patient's belief that it works.;
[45:25.82]We got around the problem by measuring brain chemistry during acupuncture.;
[45:32.00]Drugs were administered to block the brain's natural opiates;
[45:36.95]while the patient was undergoing needle stimulation.;
[45:41.27]As a result of the opiate blockage,;
[45:44.37]the acupuncture had no effect in stopping pain — proving;
[45:50.18]that there's physiolo- gical mechanism to acupuncture that goes beyond mere belief.;
[45:56.61]Acupuncture is widely employed in easing cravings;
[46:01.93]and withdrawal pains of heroin addicts.;
[46:05.33]40% of the drug courts in the United States use acupuncture as part of their therapy.;
[46:13.06]In the Miami system alone there are close to four hundred treatments per day.;
[46:20.17]In some countries,such as Sweden,;
[46:23.69]the doctors have had success with acupunc- ture in treating the effects of stroke.;
[46:29.19]Those stroke patients getting acupuncture along with physical therapy;
[46:35.19]did a lot better than those getting physical therapy alone.;
[46:39.89]Studies show that one of the key benefits of acupuncture;
[46:44.47]that seems to be emerging from various studies is that it has few,;
[46:49.10]if any, side effects; and that when used with standard drug treatment —;
[46:55.10]in anesthesia, for example — it allows physicians to cut back on medication,;
[47:01.35]delivering the same level of benefit with fewer negative effects.;
[47:08.52]Unit eleven Catering Culture Text for Interpretation;
[47:20.51]Passage 1 Chines-English Interpretation Text Interpreting;
[47:31.20]Listen to the tape and interpret the following passage from Chinese into English:;
[47:40.90]我国悠久历史、广袤的国 土、与世界各国和海外文 化的广泛接触,孕育了中 餐烹饪的独特艺术。;
[47:53.73]几千年的推陈出新和不断 累积,使用中餐受到越来 越多的海外人士的青睐,;
[48:02.28]成了我国对外文化交流的 友好使者。;
[48:07.05]现代中国已享有“烹饪 王国”之美誉,精致的烹 调艺术盛行全球,中餐烹 饪已名列顶尖菜系之林。;
[48:21.28]中餐烹调所用的天然配 料,品种繁多,几无穷 尽;烹调方法,亦层出不 穷,不可悉数。;
[48:32.79]这些无以伦比的中餐烹饪 特点,足以说明了中餐馆 以及中餐烹调之所以名扬 海外的缘由。;
[48:44.14]评判中餐烹调的优劣可依 据中餐的三大要素, 即“色、香、味".;
[48:53.43]"色“作为”色、香、味“这 三大要素首要标准,充分 体现在宴会菜肴的体现宴 会菜肴的装盘和图案。;
[49:04.53]最能显示色彩的是首先上 桌的那道煞费苦心而精心 制作的冷盘。;
[49:12.76]“香”不仅是指鼻子对食 物的直接感受,它还包 括所选原料的新鲜程度以 及佐料的合理调配。;
[49:24.44]“味”则体现了恰到好处 的调味艺术,当然它也 包括食物的质地,以及 切菜的刀功。;
[49:35.62]色、香、味这三大要素的 高品质,;
[49:40.22]只有通过选料、调料、适 时烹调、把握火候、装盘 上桌这些微妙步骤的细心 协调,才能取得。;
[49:51.57]八人一桌的标准晚餐含四 道冷盘、四道热炒,外加 汤和米饭。外国宾客见 之,常常惊叹不已,;
[50:03.50]将其视为一次丰盛的晚 宴。但在中国人眼里, 以这种规格的晚餐招待客 人,只是一种起码的标准.;
[50:13.45]准备10道份量适中的菜肴 并不为过,即使献上16道 菜,亦不足不奇。;
[50:21.75]在中国,一桌标准宴席包 括四至八个事先制作好的 冷盘,;
[50:28.82]八道现做的热炒、两道观 赏性大菜(如全鱼、 乳猪、全鸡等)此外还有 汤、米饭和点心。;
[50:40.50]晚宴结束前还有道水果。 来华访问的海外宾客应记 住,赴宴不可贪吃,每道 菜”浅尝辄止“。;
[50:51.77]从这个角度上来讲,中国 宴席犹如西方国家的冷餐 招待会。;
[50:58.76]中国宴席桌上的酒通常为 啤酒、黄酒和烈性白酒三 种.人们往往以”干杯“ 的方式互相敬酒。;
[51:09.61]”干杯“的意思是一口喝 干杯中的酒。”干“了 ”杯“中的酒,可以表示 心诚和欢乐。;
[51:18.41]当然,外国宾客与中国东 道主敬酒时,小啜一口也 未尝不可。;
[51:26.14]但是,中国的普通餐却完 全不同于宴席。一个成年 人平时在家就餐时,通常 只吃两小碗米饭,;
[51:36.92]或一大碗面条,或几只 馒头,外加几个荤素炒 菜,而非以菜为主,以米 饭或面食为辅。;
[51:46.87]对大多数中国人来说,从 一餐饭中所摄取的热量有 65%来自谷粮。;
[51:55.83]作为一种世代相袭的传 统,中国人就餐时围桌而 坐,人人手里都有一碗主 食,炒菜放在桌子中央,;
[52:07.42]大家一起食用。这一古老 的风俗习惯反映了食物在 中华文明史上的重要地 位:;
[52:16.14]占据餐桌中心位置的是炒 菜,而不是鲜花,晚餐的 主要话题常常是食物。;
[52:25.11]菜肴的各种色彩和材料搭 配,给人以美的享受.共食 一碗菜的习俗有助于家庭 成员之间的团结和友谊。;
[52:37.52]当然,在一些卫生意识比 较强的地方,人们在共食 放在餐桌中央的菜肴时,;
[52:45.75]必须使用”公筷“或 ”公用“ 汤匙,以防 疾病传染。;
[52:51.26]以上所介绍的情况对外国 客人来说,虽不应是一种 离奇的”天方夜谭“,;
[52:58.52]却也说明中国人在饮食方 面所持的价值观与西方有 很大的不同。;
[53:05.92]不过,中国人民与世界各 民族人民都有一个相同的 基本观念,即亲朋好友相 聚,;
[53:14.47]美酒佳肴相敬,实属人 生之最大快乐也。;
 
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