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新概念英语第二册详解第3课:请给我寄张明信片 Please send me a card

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  【知识点讲解】
  一、词汇解析

  1 send [动词] 寄,发送;传达,告知;派遣,打发

  send sb. something/ send sth. to sb.

  例句:Lily sent me a present from Australia.

  莉莉从澳大利亚给我寄来了礼物。

  短语扩展:send for sb. 请某人来

  例句:Please hurrily send for a doctor!

  请赶快请医生过来!

  2 spoil [动词] 破坏,毁掉;溺爱,娇惯,宠坏

  spoil的过去式和过去分词可以是spoiled或spoilt

  例句:My weekend was spoilt by his sudden visit.

  我的周末被他的突然到访破坏了。

  spoil还可表示长辈对晚辈的溺爱,娇惯。

  例句:Jack is spoilt by his mother.

  杰克被他的妈妈宠坏了。

  3 public [形容词] 公共的,公众的;百姓的

  这个词与我们第1课中讲到的private是一对反义词。

  public library 公共图书馆

  public transport 公共运输

  例句:The media has a great influence on public opinion.

  传媒对大众舆论有很大影响。

  public也可以作名词,前面加定冠词the,表示平民,百姓。

  例句:The president gave a speech to the public.

  总统对公众进行了演讲。

  4 friendly [形容词] 友好的,友爱的;亲切的,善意的;朋友似的

  friendly是一个形容词,要特别注意,它的比较级和最高级分别是friendlier,friendliest。

  短语扩展:friendly to/ towards sb.

  例句:Everyone was friendly to me.

  每个人对我都很友好。

  friendly match 友谊赛



  5 lend [动词] 借给,借出

  lend (out) sth. to sb./ lend sb. sth.

  例句:Can you lend me your cellphone?

  你能把手机借我用用吗?

  lend,borrow,keep的区别

  两者都可表示"借",但是 borrow 指"借入",而 lend 则指"借出",两者其实是一对反义词,而不是同义词。如:

  I borrowed this book from the library.

  我从图书馆借到了这本书。

  He lent his dictionary to me.

  他把字典借给我。

  要表示"向某人借某物",英语用borrow sth from sb,其中用介词from。

  要表示"把某物借给某人",英语用lend sth to sb,其中用介词to。

  具体可见以上两个例句。

  keep做"借"讲时,是延续性动词,通常表示借了某物多长时间,常与表示一段时间的时间状语连用。而borrow 和lend 是短暂性动词,不能与表示一段时间的时间状语连用。

  例句:You can keep this bike for a week.

  这辆自行车你可以借用一周。

  二、语法解析

  1 go to+地名 表示去某地

  例句:I want to go to Tibet.

  我想去西藏。

  2 A friendly waiter taught me a few words of Italian.

  a few words of几句话=a little Italian

  a few 少许,少数

  a few word 几句(话)

  few 后面跟可数名词;(记忆小妙招:因为字母可以用右手的五个手指头数出来)

  little后面跟不可数名词(记忆小妙招:因为字母不可以用右手的五个手指头数出来)

  以little为例,a little表示的是有一点,little表示的是几乎没有了,但可能还会有一丁点儿。

  3 thought about=think about 思索, 考虑; 回顾, 想起; 想到(某人, 某事)

  相关think的词组还有

  think for 认为, 预料

  think of 考虑 设想, 想象

  think (sth.) out[through] 仔细考虑; 想出, 想透; 设计出

  think over 仔细考虑一下(指想过了, 再想)

  think twice 再三考虑; 踌躇

  think up 想出, 想起等,大家要区别记忆。


  4 I visited museums and sat in public gardens.

  这个句子里visited和sat都是用的过去式,这个句子就使用了一般过去时的形式。

  一般过去时主要用来对过去发生的事情作一般性的描述。

  ①表示过去发生的事件和状态,只强调过去的一个事实,与现在无任何联系。

  例句:I went to Beijing 3 years ago.

  我三年前去过北京。

  ②表示过去的习惯性动作,而且必须带表示频率的时间状语。否则,只能表示过去的某个一次性动作。

  例句:He wrote a letter every week.

  他过去每周写一封信。

  ③叙述过去发生的一连串动作。在这一句型中,几个实义动词要求使用同一种形式。

  例句:He washed his face, put on his coat, opened the door, and rushed out.

  他洗完脸,穿上外套,打开门,然后冲了出去。

  5、I spent the whole day in my room。 spend的用法一直有比较公认的规则:spend money/time etc on sth或spend money/time etc(in)doing sth,一般认为介词in可以省略;与其相当同样要掌握的一个词就是take:take sb.sometimes to do sth./Sth takes (sb.)sometime to do. e.g. It takes me ten minutes to walk to my office. 我花了10分钟才走到办公室。

  6、single 唯一的单一的。a single card一张明信片

  in single file 一路纵队

  the single state 独身状态

  a single bed 单人床

  single only之间的区别

  single 强调"一个的"、"仅此一个的", 如:

  She buys a single new dress each year.

  她每年仅买一件新衣服。

  only 系常用语, 着重"仅有一个(或一批)的", 含"不会再多的"之意, 如:

  This is the only example I can give you.

  这是我所能给你的唯一例子。

  时态解析:

  本文出现了3处的过去式的否定形态用法,即助动词do的过去式的did否定形态用法,I did not understand a word;I did not send cards to my friends; I did not write a single card!

  下面说说肯定句改为否定句的基本方法:

  ①当陈述句的谓语动词由 be构成时,改为否定句,把not加在be后面。

  例1.They are doctors.

  这个句子的谓语动词是由系动词构成的,改为否定句时把 not加在are的后面,即:They are not doctors.

  ②陈述句的谓语动词是行为动词,改为否定句时,要用助动词do(does,did)+not+行为动词构成否定形式。

  例1.He studies English well.

  本句的谓语由行为动词studies构成,把它改为否定句时要由助动词does+not构成否定形式,即:He doesn't study English well.

  上例三句中都属于这类understand,send,write均为行为动词,在句中做谓语。

  I did not understand a word否定---I understood.肯定

  I did not send cards to my friends.否定---I sent cards to my friends.肯定

  I did not write a single card!否定---I written a card! 肯定

  注意,动词则保持原型。


  不规则动词过去式和过去分词表
  am was been 是
  are were been 是
  awake awoke awoke 唤醒
  bear bore born 忍受
  beat beat beaten 打;敲打
  become became become 成为;变成
  begin began begun 开始
  bet bet bet 打赌
  break broke broken 打坏;打破
  bring brought brought 带来
  build built built 建筑;建设
  burn burnt burnt 燃烧
  buy bought bought 买
  catch caught caught 揪住;抓住
  can could   能;会
  choose chose chosen 选择
  come came came 来
  cost cost cost 花费
  cut cut cut 砍;切
  do did done 做
  does did done 做
  dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt 做梦
  drink drank drunk 喝
  drive drove driven 驾驶;开车
  eat ate eaten 吃
  fall fell fallen 落下;跌倒
  feed fed fed 喂养
  feel felt felt 感觉
  fight fought fought 打架
  find found found 发现;找到
  fly flew flown 飞行
  forget forgot forgotten/forgot 忘记
  get got got/gotten 得到
  give gave given 给予
  go went gone 走;去
  grow grew grown 成长;种植
  hang hung/hanged hung/hanged 闲晃;悬挂
  have had had 有
  has had had 有
  hear heard heard 听见
  hit hit hit 打;击
  hold held held 举办;容纳
  hurt hurt hurt 伤害
  keep kept kept 保持;喂养
  know knew known 知道;了解
  lay laid laid 下蛋;平躺
  learn learnt/learnt learnt 学习
  leave left left 离开;留下
  lend lent lent 借给
  let let let 让
  lie lay lain 躺下
  lose lost lost 丢失
  make made made 制造;制作
  mean meant meant 意思是;意味着
  meet met met 遇见
  may might   可以
  mistake mistook mistaken 犯错
  must must   必须
  pay paid paid 付钱;赔偿
  put put put 挂
  read read read 读
  ride rode ridden 骑;乘
  ring rang rung (钟/铃)响;鸣
  rise rose risen 升起
  run ran run 跑
  say said said 说
  see saw seen 看见
  sell sold sold 卖
  send sent sent 寄;送;派
  set set set 安装
  shake shook shaken 摇动;摆动
  shine shone/shined shone/shined 照耀
  show showed shown/showed 显示

  新概念英语第二册Lesson 5 练习题:

  1、Although he 's wealthy,he spends___ on clothes.
  A. little  B. few C. a little  D. a few


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