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新概念英语第二册详解第59课:In or out

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lesson 59 In or out

Our dog, Rex, used to sit outside our front gate and bark. Every time he wanted to come into the garden he would bark until someone opened the gate. As the neighbours complained of the noise, my husband spent weeks training him to press his paw on the latch to let himself in. Rex soon became an expert at opening the gate. However, when I was going out shopping last week, I noticed him in the garden near the gate. This time he was barking so that someone would let him out ! Since then, he has developed another bad habit. As soon as he opens the gate from the outside, he comes into the garden and waits until the gate shuts. Then he sits and barks until someone lets him out. After this he immediately lets himself in and begins barking again. Yesterday my husband removed the gate and Rex got so annoyed we have not seen him since.

New words and expressions 生词和短语

bark v. 狗叫

press v. 按,压

paw n. 脚爪

latch n. 门闩

expert n. 专家

develop v. 养成

habit n. 习惯

remove v. 拆掉,取下

参考译文

我家的狗雷克斯,过去常坐在大门外面叫。每当它想到花园里来时,便汪汪叫个不停,直到有人把门打开。由于邻居们对狗叫很有意见,所以我丈夫花了几个星期的时间训练它用脚爪按住门闩把自己放进来。雷克斯很快成了开门的专家。然而上星期我正要出去买东西时,发现它正呆在花园里边靠门的地方。这次它叫着让人把它放出去!从那以后,它养成了另外一种坏习惯。它从外面把门一打开,就走进花园,等着门自动关上。这之后他就坐下汪汪叫起来,直到有人来把它放出去。出去之后,它又马上把自己放进来,接着再开始叫。昨天,我丈夫把门卸了下来,雷克斯很生气,此后我们便再也没有见到它。

自学导读

1.Every time he wanted to come into the garden he would bark until someone opened the gate.每当它想到花园里来时,便汪汪叫个不停,直到有人把门打开。

every time在这里为连词引导一个时间状语从句,表示“每次”、“每当”,主句中的would表示过去的习惯性动作。用一般过去时的句子中它们经常连用:

Every time we met, we would talk for a while.

我们每次见面都要聊一会儿。

Every time he came to the restaurant, he would first ask for a cup of tea.

他每次到这个饭馆来,都是先要一杯茶。

2.…my husband spent weeks training him to press his paw on the latch to let himself in.……我丈夫花了几个星期的时间训练它用脚爪按住门闩把自己放进来。

(1)spend表示“在……上花时间”时,后面如果跟名词则用介词on;如果跟动名词则用介词in(在口语中in往往省略):

Why don't you spend more time on studies?

你为什么不在学习上再多花点时间呢?

I spent two weeks(in) reading this book.

我花了两星期的时间读这本书。

(2)train的宾语是him, to press…是宾语补足语,to let…为目的状语。

3.Rex soon became an expert at opening the gate.雷克斯很快成了开门的专家。

expert表示“做/干……的专家/高手”时后面通常用 at doing sth.;表示在某一领域是“专家”、“权威”时可用介词in或on:

John is an expert at driving a car.

约翰是开车高手。

She is an expert in flowers.

她是花卉方面的专家。

Sam is an expert on that problem.

萨姆是研究那个问题的权威。

4.This time he was barking so that someone would let him out!这次它叫着让人把它放出去!

连词so that引导的是目的状语从句。(cf.本课语法)

语法 Grammar in use

1.复习第50~58课语法

2.表示目的的几种方式:to, in order to, so as to, so that, in order that

(1)带to的不定式及其变体in order to和so as to 可以用来表示目的:

I went to live in France to/in order to/so as to learn French.

我去法国居住,以便学习法语。

not to可以用于表示取舍:

I went to France not to study French, but to study chemics.

我去法国不是为了学法语,而是为了学化学。

so as not to/in order not to可以用于表示“以防”:

I shut the door quietly, so as not to/in order not to wake the baby.

为了不惊醒婴儿,我轻轻地关上门。

在bring, buy, need, take, use, want等动词后经常用宾语+不定式(而不用宾语+in order to/so as to),不定式表示用宾语的目的:

I want something to drink.

我想要一点喝的东西。

I need a spoon to eat this ice cream with.

我需要一把汤匙来吃这冰淇淋。

Bring me a chair to sit on.

给我拿一把椅子来坐。

(2)连词 so that, in order that可以引导目的状语从句。当主句用一般现在时、现在完成时或一般将来时的时候,so that和 in order that后面可以跟may, can或will。so that比in order that更为普遍:

I've arrived early so that/in order that I may/can/will get the tickets.

我到得早,以便能买到票。

当主句中的动词为一般过去时、过去进行时或过去完成时的时候, so that和in order that后面跟should, could, might或would:

I arrived early so that/in order that I should/could/might/would get the tickets.

(译文同上)

so that和in order that后面的否定形式如下:

I arrived early so that/in order that I might not miss anything.

我到得很早,以免错过什么。(否定句中不可用could,可用should, would等)

(3)相比之下,带to, so as to和 in order to的结构比带that的结构要简单、自然,所以多为人使用:

I arrived early so as not to/in order not to miss anything.(译文同上)

当前后主语不一致时,不定式前面加for+名词/代词比that结构更简洁

词汇学习 Word study

1.press

(1)vt., vi.按,挤,压:

She pressed my hand warmly.

她热情地握我的手。

Can you press that button for me please?

请问您能帮我按一下那个按钮吗?

The dog pressed his paw on the latch to let himself in.

那狗用脚爪按住门闩把自己放进来。

(2)vt.挤取,榨取(……的汁):

This is the time of the year when they press their grapes.

这是他们榨葡萄汁的季节。

If you prefer juice, you can press some oranges.

如果你更喜欢果汁,你可以榨些橙汁。

(3)vt.催促,敦促,竭力劝说:

My parents pressed me to enter for the competition.

我父母竭力劝我报名参加这个竞赛。

I don't like to be pressed.我不喜欢被人催促。

2.develop vt.,vi.

(1)发展,扩展:

The village has developed into a town now.

那个村子现在已扩展成一个镇了。

Do you believe that you can develop your mind through watching TV?

你相信通过看电视能开发你的智力吗?

It's hard to develop your business in this city.

在这座城市扩展你的业务是困难的。

(2)(逐渐)显现出,产生,获得,养成:

He has developed another bad habit.

他/它养成了另外一种坏习惯。

She developed an interest in swimming.

她对游泳产生了兴趣。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A b opens (1.9); comes (1.9); waits…shuts (11.9-10);sits…barks…lets…lets (1.10); begins (1.10)

c wanted (1.2); opened (1.3); complained (1.3); spent (1.4); became (1. 5); noticed (1.6); removed (1.11);got (1.11)

d has developed (1.8); have not seen (1.11)

e was going out (1.6); was barking (1.7)

C 1 He is said to be/It is said that he is very rich.

2 There is said to be/It is said that there is a hold-up on the roads.

3 I was given a pen./A pen was given to me.

4 She was given a prize./A prize was given to her.

5 We were promised a new office./A new office was promised to us.

(Note: In numbers 3-5, the second alternative is grammatically correct but rarely used.)

2.难点练习答案

1 He left early so as not to see me.

2 The secretary asked me into the office so that the manager might speak to me.

3 I ran to the station so as not to be late.

4 He worked hard in order to learn English.

5 He has not sent me his address so that I will/shall not be able to write to him.

6 I went to see him to find out what had happened.

3.多项选择题答案

1 d 2 b 3 d 4 d 5 d 6 a

7 b 8 a 9 d 10 a 11a 12 b

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★bark v. 狗叫

The dog is barking

Somebody is barking

★press v. 按,压

pressure :压力

★paw n. 脚爪

cat's paw :被人所利用的人

I don't want to be a cat's paw.

★latch n. 门闩

bar :门闩

★expert n. 专家

expert at/in 在某一方面是专家

expert at/in dong sth

expert at / in opening the door

★develop v. 养成

develop the film :冲洗胶卷

develop :发展

developing skills ;发展技巧

fluency in English

developing country :发展中国家

developed country :发达国家

boiling water :滚开水

boiled water:开水

★habit n. 习惯

custom :风格,习俗

customs:海关

customer:顾客

★remove v. 拆掉,取下

remove sth from

【课文讲解】

let sb in: 让某人进来

let sb out :让某人出去

let sb down:让某人失望

let's

front gate

would = used to

every time=when :当什么时候,后面可以是点,可以是断

the moment = as soon as:一...就...(强调的是瞬间)

every time 每次,每当

Every time I turn to lesson 59,I will remember my teacher.

The dog used to bark outside the front gate to let(make)somebody open the door.

complain of :抱怨

spend time doing:花费某断时间去做某事

It takes do 事情做主语

sb spend time 人做主语

train sb to do :训练某人做某事

press his paw/press the latch

press the button/press the figure on the button

going out shopping

so that :以便于,为了(表达目的)

so...that...如此...以致于

表达目的:to/in order to /in order that/ so as to /so that

to + 动词原型, that+从句

目的状语从句必须具备一个特征:在动词前面一定要出现情态动词

after this

got 是谓语动词

have seen 也是谓语dc

so annoyed(that)

so...that...:如此...以致于,结果状语从句,可以省略一个词

so that 目的状语从句,谓语动词前面一定要要情态动词

since(加在尾巴上)=since then :从那时起到现在为止

【Special difficulties】

表达目的的几种方式 :to/in orderto /so as to +原型

in order that /so that +目的状语从句

目的状语从句当中不存在want,只有to do

非谓语动词的否定形式在结构前面

如果发现do的动作不是由主语做的,而是由其他人做的,在do的前面加for sb

不定式的逻辑主语:for sb to do sth

【Multiple choice questions】

6...was barking__....

so that 引导目的状语从句

Answer A

in case 以防万一,如果

Eg.:Bring your umbrella in case it rains.

so 表示结果;引导句子

to do不定式做目的状语

for sb to do sth = so that sb. do sth.

7. As soon as he____...

Answer B

as soon as 引导状语从句

状语从句中使用一般现在时取代一般将来时

be opening 强调动作正在发生

has been doing 现在完成进行时强调从过去延续到现在,并且还将延续


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