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新概念英语第二册详解第62课:After the fire

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Lesson 62 After the fire 大火之后

First listen and then answer the question.

听录音,然后回答以下问题。

What was the danger to the villages after the fire?

Firemen had been fighting the forest for nearly three weeks before they could get it under control. A short time before, great trees had covered the countryside for miles around. Now, smoke still rose up from the warm ground over the desolate hills. Winter was coming on and the hills threatened the surrounding villages with destruction, for heavy rain would not only wash away the soil but would cause serious floods as well. When the fire had at last been put out, the forest authorities ordered several tons of a special type of grass-seed which would grow quickly. The seed was sprayed over the ground in huge quantities by aeroplanes. The planes had been planting seed for nearly a month when it began to rain. By then, however, in many places the grass had already taken root. In place of the great trees which had been growing there for centuries patches of green had begun to appear in the blackened soil.

New words and expressions 生词和短语

control n. 控制

smoke n. 烟

desolate adj. 荒凉的

threaten v. 威胁

surrounding adj. 周围的

destruction n. 破坏,毁灭

flood n. 洪水,水灾

authority n. (常用复数)当局

grass-seed n. 草籽

spray v. 喷撒

quantity n. 量

root n. 根

century n. 世纪

patch n. 小片

blacken v. 变黑,发暗

参考译文

消防队员们同那场森林大火搏斗了将近3个星期才最后把火势控制住。就在不久之前,参天大树还覆盖着方圆数英里的土地。而现在,发热的地面上仍然升腾着烟雾,弥漫在荒凉的山丘上。冬季即将来临,这些山丘对周围的村庄具有毁灭性的威胁,因为大雨不仅会冲走土壤,而且还会引起严重的水灾。在大火最后被扑灭后,森林管理当局订购了好几吨一种生长迅速的特殊类型的草籽。飞机把这种草籽大量地撒播在地上。飞机撒播近一个月后,开始下起雨来。然而到那时,很多地方的草已经生了根。一片片的绿草开始出现在这片烧焦的土地上,代替了多少世纪以来一直生长在那里的参天大树。

自学导读

1.under control,受到控制。

get it under control表示“使它得到控制”,get有“使……处于某种状态”的含义:

You'd better get your dog under control.

你最好管住你的狗。

The Government can no longer keep prices under control.政府已控制不住物价。

2.for miles around,方圆数英里。

around表示“在周围”、“向四周”:

This is the only modern building for miles around.

方圆数英里之内这是惟一的一座现代化建筑。

3.Winter was coming on and the hills threatened the surrounding villages with destruction…冬季即将来临,这些山丘对周围的村庄具有毁灭性的威胁……

(1)come on的过去进行时形式表示的是过去将来时,它在这里表示季节的“到来”、“来临”:

When spring comes on, there will be flowers everywhere.

春天到来时到处都是鲜花。

I was still in the forest when night came on.

夜晚来临时我仍在森林里。

(2)threaten…with表示“以……威胁/恐吓”:

The thief threatened him with a knife.

小偷用刀子威胁他。

Then whole village is threatened with destruction.

整个村子面临着毁灭的威胁。

4.…for heavy rain would not only wash away the soil but would cause serious floods as well.……因为大雨不仅会冲走土壤,而且还会引起严重的水灾。

(1)for引导的句子与前面的两个分句为并列句,用于陈述原因。heavy rain这个主语之后是由not only… but… as well连接的两个谓语。与并列连词 not only…but(also)的含义一样,not only…but…as well也表示“不仅……而且……”,用于连接并列句,只是as well通常位于句尾。试比较:

He not only washed the car, but (also) polished it.

他不仅冲洗汽车,而且擦拭了它。

He not only washed the car, but polished it as well.

(译文同上)

(2)wash away表示“冲掉”、“冲走”或“洗掉”等:

A wooden bridge was washed away by the flood.

一座木桥被洪水冲走了。

I can't wash the spot away.

我无法把这污点洗去。

5.in huge quantities,大量地。

quantity单数时仅表示“数量”,既可以用于表示多也可以用于表示少:

They drank a large/great/small quantity of beer last night.

昨天晚上他们喝了大量/许多/少量的啤酒。

quantity复数时表示“大量”:

He bought books in (large) quantities.

他大量地购书。

He has quantities of books/stamps.

他有大量的书/邮票。

6.… in many places the grass had already taken root.……很多地方的草已经生了根。

take root表示“生根”,是固定短语:

This type of grass takes root easily.

这种草很容易生根。

这个短语也可以表示某种思想/想法等“扎根”:

The idea has taken root in his mind.

这个想法已在他脑子里扎了根。

7.In place of the great trees which had been growing there for centuries, patches of green had begun to appear in the blackened soil.一片片的绿草开始出现在这片烧焦的土地上,代替了多少世纪以来一直生长在那里的参天大树。

(1)in place of表示“代替”、“取代”:

Jane answered the phone in place of Mary.

简代替玛丽接了电话。

(2)介词短语 in place of的宾语是trees。trees有一个which引导的关系从句,which在从句中作主语,不可省略;从句中的时态为过去完成进行时。(cf.本课语法)

(3)patch的含义之一是“颜色和周围不同的部分”:

There are patches of cloud in the sky.

天空中有片片白云。

What is that yellow patch on the wall?

墙上那块黄斑是什么?

(4)blackened为过去分词,作形容词用,表示“变黑了的”、“烧焦的”:

The smoke has blackened the walls.

烟把墙熏黑了。

语法 Grammar in use

1.过去完成进行时 (The past perfect progressive tense)构成: had been+现在分词

(1)过去完成进行时用于强调某动作在过去更早的某一段时间内一直在进行,并对过去某一时刻产生结果。与它经常连用的表示时间的词有before, for, since, all day等:

She was very tired. She had been typing letters all day.

她很累了。她整天都在打信件。

(2)过去完成进行时可用来表示过去经常重复的动作:Jill was angry. Jim had been phoning her every night for a whole week.

吉尔生气了。整整一星期,吉姆天天晚上都给她打电话。

(3)它还可以表示根据直接或间接的证据而得出结论:Her eyes were red. It was obvious she had been crying.她的眼睛红了。显然她刚哭过。

(4)在包含间接引语的句子中,如果引述词是过去时态,则现在完成进行时要改为过去完成进行时(cf.第15课语法):

2.过去完成进行时与过去完成时的比较

过去完成时在第14课与第38课的语法中已经学过。它与过去完成进行时有时可以替换使用:

Dan had worked/had been working for the firm for fifteen years when I first met him.

我第一次遇见丹时,他已在该公司干了15年了。

需要表示某个工作已经完成时,只能用过去完成时:

When I got home, I found that Jill had been painting her room.

我回到家时,看见吉尔在粉刷她的房间。(工作尚未完成)

When I got home, I found that Jill had painted her room.

我回到家时,发现吉尔已经粉刷过她的房间了。(已完成)

When I arrived, they'd already put the fire out.

我到达时,他们已经把火扑灭了。(不可用过去完成进行时)

词汇学习 Word study

1.control与check

(1)control (vt.) 表示“指挥”、“控制”、“支配”、“管理”等:The Bentons control this firm.

本顿一家控制着这家公司。

Don't try to control other people.

不要试图指挥/控制他人。

control(n.)表示“控制(能力)”、“支配(能力)”等:

They finally got the fire under control.

他们最终控制住了火势。

It's hard to keep the number of people coming into the country under control.

很难控制住进入这个国家的人数。

(2)check(vt.)表示“检查”、“查看”:

They're going to check our passports.

他们将要查看我们的护照。

Check the fire before you leave.

离开之前检查一下火。

2.great与big

它们都有“大”的意思,但great通常与重要性有关,表示“伟大的”、“重大的”、“重要的”等含义,big则较为口语化,表示体积、规模等方面的“大”:

Frank has just made a great decision.

弗兰克刚作出一项重大决定。

This picture is said to be painted by a great painter.

据说这幅画是一位伟大的画家画的。(不可用big)

Sam is a big man.

萨姆是个大块头。

Your house is bigger than mine.

你家的房子比我家的大。(不可用great)

3.soil与ground

soil主要用于指“土”、“土地”、“土壤”:

Heavy rain will wash away the soil from desolate hills.

大雨将把泥土从荒凉的山丘上冲走。

Trees and grass grow quickly in rich soil.

草木在肥沃的土壤里生长迅速。

ground含义较广。它除了可以表示“土地”、“土壤”外,还可以表示“地面”、“场地”等:

Don't sit on the ground.

不要坐在地上。

He threw the cup to the ground.

他把杯子摔到地上。

There is a football ground in our university.

我们大学里有一个足球场。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A What had happened: had covered (1. 3); had…been put out (11.7-8); had already taken not (11.10-11); had begun(1.12)

What had been happening: had been fighting (1. 1); had been planting (11.9-10); had been growing (1.11)

C (had) discovered…appeared; had taken part…died; happened… claimed… had died; had been searching… was/had been found

2.难点练习答案

1 checked 2 soil 3 checked 4 great

3.多项选择题答案

1 a 2 d 3 d 4 c 5 d 6 c

7 c 8 b 9 d 10 a 11 d 12 b

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★control n. 控制

control sth.(v.)控制...

I can control it.

I can manage it (口)

介词短语:

in control 在控制之内

under control 在控制之下,被控制

out of control 失控

arrest 逮捕

under arrest 被逮捕

★smoke n. 烟

smoke:(v.)吸烟

Don't smoke

No smoking.

cigarette,cigar :(n.)香烟

smoke :(n.)烟雾

full of smoke

名词加-y,变为形容词

smokey:(a.)多烟的

smokey area :吸烟区

nonsmokey area :吸烟区

heavy smoker:烟瘾重的人

★desolate adj. 荒凉的

lonely :孤独的;荒凉的,偏僻的

desolate:荒凉的,极度孤独的

★threaten v. 威胁

threaten to do :威胁着要做...

threaten sb.with sth:以什么来威胁某人

It threatened to rain 有迹象表明天要下雨了

★surrounding adj. 周围的

surrounds:环境(在周边的事物)

atmosphere:大气层,氛围(在周边的人文环境)

★destruction n. 破坏,毁灭

destroy :(v.)破坏

destructive:毁灭性的

construction :建设,建筑

build:建设(具体的建某物)

construct:建设(为...创造更好的条件)

constructive 建设性的意见

★flood n. 洪水,水灾

flood ,floods

★authority n. (常用复数)当局

authorities

★grass-seed n. 草籽

★spray v. 喷撒

spray sth.over/on

★quantity n. 量

quality :质量

quantity:数量

sth.with good quality

quantities of :大量的

★root n. 根

root of:...的根

What is the root cause?

take root:生根

come out :长出来

shoot :芽

get out :出去

★century n. 世纪

★patch n. 小片

a patch of :一小片

patches of :许多片

piece :片,块

patch :(平面上的)一片,补丁

★blacken v. 变黑,发暗

-en --表示动词

weak :虚弱的

weaken :使...变弱,削弱

复合词 :fireman

派生词:(前缀,后缀)

-tion … 名词

-less … 形容词

【课文讲解】

fireman had been fighting the forest fire

fight sth.:和...搏斗

get + 宾语+介词短语 ……作宾补

for miles around 方圆几英里

a short time before --从过去某一点时间算起,一段时间以前

a short time ago --从现在算起,一段时间以前

都可以放在段时间之后

rose up(from):升上来

over the desolate hills :(烟,雾)弥漫

Winter was coming on 季节的来临

threaten sb.with sth. 有..迹象

serious :严重的

put out :扑灭

several tons of a special type of grass-seed

was sprayed over the ground 被动语态

in huge quantities --介词短语作状语,"大量的"

take root :生根

in place of :替代(只能指代位置、空间)原来放的东西,现在不在了

in stead of :替代+没做的事

【Key structures】

过去完成时……这个动作在过去的过去

过去完成进行时……这个动作非但从过去的过去开始,而且是延续的

【Special difficulties】

Great :大的(强调重要性)

Big:大的(强调面积、体积上的)

Soil:泥土(能让植物生长的)

Ground:地表,地面

【Multiple choice questions】

6...

花费 :如果是人作主语用spend

用时间表达用take

9...

A.weights  weigh 重量

B.measures 测量

C.tons 吨  several tons

D.amounts  large amounts 大量的,修饰不可数名词

11...

patches 许多块

everywhere 每一寸土地上都长着东西

here and there 这一块,那一块,很多块,不一定是每一寸

【Dummary writing】

2.

now that 既然

which 定语从句

Now that all the great trees had been burnt,there was danger that heavy rain would cause serious floods which would destroy the surrounding village.

3. To prevent this the forest authorities ordered grass-seend which was sprayed over the ground by planes for nearly a month.

4.by the time (that) 到...时候为止.应理解为 before

By the time it began to rain,the grass had taken root in the soil.


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