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新概念英语第二册详解第68课:Persistent

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Lesson 68 Persistent 纠缠不休

First listen and then answer the question.

听录音,然后回答以下问题。

Why did Elizabeth tell Nigel that she was going to the dentist?

I crossed the street to avoid meeting him, but he saw me and came running towards me. It was no use pretending that I had not seen him, so I waved to him. I never enjoy meeting Nigel Dykes. He never has anything to do. No matter how busy you are, he always insists on coming with you. I had to think of a way of preventing him from following me around all morning.

'Hello, Nigel,' I said. 'Fancy meeting you here!'

'Hi, Elizabeth,' Nigel answered. 'I was just wondering how to spend the morning -- until I saw you. You're not busy doing anything, are you?'

'No, not at all,' I answered. 'I'm going to...'

'Would you mind my coming with you?' he asked, before I had finished speaking.

'Not at all,' I lied, 'but I'm going to the dentist.'

'Then I'll come with you,' he answered. 'There's always plenty to read in the waiting room!

New words and expressions 生词和短语

persistent adj. 坚持的,固执的

avoid v. 避开

insist v. 坚持做

参考译文

我穿过马路以便避开他,但他看到我并朝我跑过来。若再装作没看见他已是没有用了,我只好向他招手。我就怕遇到奈杰尔.戴克斯。他从来都是无事可做,不管你多忙,他总是坚持要跟你去。我得想办法不让他整个上午缠着我。

“你好,奈杰尔,想不到在这儿见到你。”我说。

“你好,伊丽莎白,”奈杰尔回答说,“我正不知道怎么消磨这一上午呢,正好见到你。你不忙,是吗?”

“不,不忙,我打算去......”我回答。

“我跟你一道去行吗?”没等我说完话他就问道。

“没关系,但我准备去牙医那里。”我说了个谎。

“那我也跟你去,候诊室里总有很多东西可供阅读!”他回答。

自学导读

1.I crossed the street to avoid meeting him, but he saw me and came running towards me. 我穿过马路以便避开他,但他看到我并朝我跑过来。

(1)avoid 以及本课中出现的 enjoy, fancy, mind, finish等动词后面只跟名词性的宾语,即只跟名词或动名词:

They managed to avoid a car crash/crashing their car into the wall.

他们设法躲过了一起汽车撞车事故/避免了将车撞在墙上。

(2)running 引导的是分词短语,作状语,修饰 came,表示伴随状况:

She ran after the thief shouting out for help.

她一边追赶小偷,一边大声喊叫求助。

2.It was no use pretending that I had not seen him…若再装做没看见他已是没有用了……

这句话中,it是先行主语,真正的主语是 pretending 引导的动名词短语。It is (of) no use doing…是个固定结构(其中的 of可省略),表示“做……也是徒劳的/无益的”:

It is (of) no use worrying about your family.

为你的家人担心是无益的。

3.No matter how busy you are…不管你多忙……

no matter可与疑问词 (how, who, when, where, what等)一起引导让步从句,表示“无论”:

No matter where you go, you can't forget your home.

无论你到哪里,都无法忘记自己的家。

No matter what I say, I seem to say the wrong thing.

无论我说什么,都似乎说得不当。

4.I had to think of a way of preventing him from following me around all morning. 我得想办法不让他整个上午缠着我。

think of在这里的含义是“想出”, way在这里表示“办法”, a way of后面的部分用于修饰 way。prevent表示“阻止/制止”时其常用结构为 prevent sb. from doing sth., from可以省略:

I can't prevent you from going if you want to.

你如果想去,我无法阻止。

5.You're not busy doing anything, are you? 你不忙,是吧?

这是一个附加疑问句,又称反意疑问句,是由陈述句后面加简略疑问句构成。陈述句如果是肯定的,则附加疑问句通常用否定形式;陈述句如果是否定的,则附加的疑问句用肯定形式。陈述句中有助动词时,附加疑问句重复其中的助动词;如果没有,则用do的各种形式构成:

John was angry, wasn't he?

约翰生气了,不是吗?(肯定式+否定式)

He hasn't left, has he?

他没走,是吗?(否定式+肯定式)

I can see him, can't I?

我可以见他,不是吗?(情态助动词作助动词)

You like it, don't you?

你喜欢它,不是吗?(没有助动词时加do)

6.Would you mind my coming with you? 我跟你一道去行吗?

(1)Would/ Do you mind…? 是一个用来表示客气的请求或征求意见的结构,其中可以用if引导的从句或动名词结构。表示“同意/不介意”时,用“No, not at all”或“Certainly not”来回答;不同意时往往用一些委婉的说法,如“ I'm sorry, but…”等回答,不用“yes, I do”:

(2)如果动名词的动作执行者与句子的主语不一致时,它前面可以加所有格形容词或宾格代词,作为动名词的逻辑主语(cf. 本课语法):

I hope you won't mind my staying here.

我希望你不介意我呆在这儿。

语法 Grammar in use

动名词的一些用法

(1)在第20课的语法中,我们学习了动名词的基本形式和作用,在第44课的语法中,我们学习了动名词用于某些短语动词

(look forward to, be used to等)之后、一些表示喜好的动词(hate, love, prefer等)之后不定式与动名词的区别以及 need 和want之后动名词的用法等:

I like watching TV.

我喜欢看电视。(一般行为)

I'd like to watch TV.

我(现在)想看电视。(特定)

The strap needs mending.

这提包带需要修理。(动名词在这里有被动的含义)

(2)有些动词后可以用动名词作宾语,但不能用不定式。这些动词包括 avoid, admit, deny, fancy, finish, enjoy, mind(在乎,在意),suggest, stand(容忍)等:

I tried to avoid meeting him.

我试图避开他。

I never enjoy meeting Nigel Dykes.

我就怕遇到奈杰尔·戴克斯。

I haven't finished speaking yet.

我还没有说完。

(3)有些结构通常要接动名词,如 busy, worth, it is no/little use, bored with, interested in, insist on, prevent…from等:

I'm busy making meat pies.

我正忙着做肉馅饼。

A Lancaster bomber in reasonable condition is worth rescuing.

一架状况尚好的兰开斯特轰炸机值得抢救。

He insisted on paying.

他坚持要付钱。

I'm interested in acting.

我对表演感兴趣。

(4)动名词可以有自己的逻辑主语(即动作执行者,而不是句子的主语):

He insisted on my paying the bill.

他坚持要我付账。

I don't think the children enjoy your/his/John's singing.

我不认为孩子们喜欢你/他/约翰唱的歌。

Please excuse his not writing to you.

请原谅他没有给你写信。

Do you mind my smoking?

我可以抽烟吗?

Do you mind opening/my opening the door?

你/我可以开门吗?

(5)come和go之后可以跟与户外活动相关的动名词(climbing, driving, fishing, riding, shopping, walking等),表示建议、邀请或叙事:

Why don't we go swimming?

为什么我们不去游泳呢?

Come dancing this evening.

今晚来跳舞吧。

Yesterday we went fishing.

昨天我们去钓鱼了。

(6)感知动词(hear, see, feel, watch等)后面既可以跟宾语加分词结构,也可以跟宾语加不带to的不定式。现在分词往往强调动作正在发生,用于叙述中时使人身临其境;不定式则可以表示动作发生了或过程结束了。有时它们之间的区别不大,可以互相替换使用。试比较:

I watched him climb/climbing the tree.

我看到他爬树了。(区别不大)

词汇学习 Word study

1.fancy vt.

(1)设想,想像:

Fancy meeting you here!

想不到在这儿见到你!

Fancy Ian not knowing the answer to such an easy question!

真想不到伊恩竟会不知道如何回答这样一个简单的问题!

(2)想要,喜欢(往往用于指个人爱好):

I don't fancy going for a walk in the rain.

我不爱在雨中散步。

It's a fine day and I fancy driving down to the coast.

天气真好,我想开车去海边。

2.insist vt.,vi.

(1)坚持,坚决认为:

He insisted that he was right.

他坚持他是对的。

He insists on the importance of the meeting.

他强调这个会议的重要性。

(2)坚决主张/要求,一定要:

I insist on speaking to the manager.

我坚决要求/一定要与经理谈话。

My wife insists that I (should) have my hair cut.

我妻子执意要我理发。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

C (sample sentences)

1 It's no use trying to reason with him.

2 Let's go swimming.

3 Forgive my interrupting you.

4 Do you deny having taken/taking the money?

5 He came rushing towards me.

6 I'm busy writing letters.

7 I always enjoy going to the cinema.

8 Would you mind closing the door, please?

2.多项选择题答案

1b 2b 3c 4d 5b 6b

7b 8c 9c 10 c 11a 12a

【New words and expressions】 生词和短语

★persistent adj. 坚持的,固执的

You are stubborn.

persist:坚持(不顾阻拦一味的坚持)persist in doing sth.

insist:坚持(认为、说、是人的一种态度) insist on doing sth.

perseverance:坚持不懈(褒义)      persevere in

★avoid v. 避开

avoid doing sth.

★insist v. 坚持做

【课文讲解】

avoid meeting

cross:(v.)穿过

across:(adv./prep)穿过

came running 向我跑过来

go shopping,go swimming,go skating

it is no use doing...做某件事情是没有用处的

It is no use crying over the spilled millk.

enjoy doing

like,love,enjoy,appreciate

用不定式做定语,修饰anything

insists on coming

No matter :无论+从句(要以特殊疑问词引导)

No matter how busy you are.

I had to think of a way of preventing

think of a way of doing :想一个作某事的方法

prevent do from doing sth :让某人不做某事

stop sb.from doing sth ;让某人不做某事

keep sb.from doing sth.

forbid sb.to do sth.

Fancy meeting you here? 真想不到会在这里见到你!

fancy = imagine

fancy + 名词——表示惊讶

不定式的复合结构,做宾语从句

be busy doing:忙着做某事

反意疑问句的回答,根据事实回答

finish doing

complete doing

Would you mind my coming with you?

mind + v.-ing

for sb.--逻辑主语

my --形容词性物主代词

如果是名词,就变成名词所有格

Would you mind my parents' having dinner with me?

Would you mind me opening the door?

mind+v.-ing

-ing 的逻辑主语,是四种形式,分两大类:

1.作为代词,可以用人称代词的宾格,又可以用形容词性物主代词。

2.作为名词,可以保持本身不变,也可以变成名词所有格

my---me 可以互换

Would you mind my/me smoking?

Would you mind me making myself at Home?

【语法精粹】

4.动名词复合结构:由名词所有格或物主代词与动名词构成

His leaving is a great loss.

他的离去是一个很大的损失

Mother dislikes my (me)working late.

妈妈不喜欢我工作很迟

John's having seen her did not make her worried.

约翰已经见到她的事实,没有让她感到担心

注:动名词复合结构多作主语或宾语,作主语是必须是所有格,(名词所有格、形容词性物主代词)。但作宾语时可以用所有格,也可用普通格

-ing前面出现逻辑,这个逻辑主语可以出现四种情况:

作代词:形容词性物主代词,人称代词宾格

作名词:名词所有格,普通格

那些词后面可以接动词-ing

介词,某些动词(avoid,enjoy,finish,it is no use,prevent sb.from,fancy,imagine,escape,risk,allow);

语法精粹:

3)宾语:下列动词须跟动名词作宾语:

admit,deny,appreciate,enjoy,avoid,complete,delay,fancy,finish,mind,practice,risk,suggest,allow,permit...

practice(n.)practise(v.)

advice(n.)advise(vt.) advise sb.to do/advise doing

insist on doing,persist in doing,persevere in doing

give up doing

特注:

以allow为列:allow+doing sth.(动名词作宾语),但可以:allow sb.to do sth.(不定式作宾语)

这类动词常见如:advise,allow,permit,recommend,etc.

Structure:

6...b...

insist on

insist + 从句(should +原形)

10...c

salute :问候(军人向长官的)行军礼,敬礼

greet:问候

12...a...

lie to:向某人撒谎

false:假的

lie:谎言 What she said was a lie.

9...c...

as if :似乎,好像

make :制造,做

do as if (不这么用)

act as if

conduct as if (conduct+oneself:表现)

Summary writing:

Even though

When because

Composition

1...

As(因为)...whom(引导定语从句)...in order to (目的状语)

As there was a dentist nearby whow she knew well Elizabeth decided to go there in order to explain what had happened.

2....

While(时间)...and(并列的两个句子)

3...

After...and asked Nigel if...(间接引语)

After Elizabeth left,the dentist went into the waiting room and asked Nigel if he wanted to have his teeth ezamined.


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