2020-09-14 13:50:22  每日学英语
Scientists and engineers are preparing for possible travel into interstellar space, the area in between stars, in the distant future.


A new report examines the possible problem of changes in language on long space trips.


Only two spacecraft from Earth have reached the mysterious area known as interstellar space. Scientists identify interstellar space as the area outside the area of particles and magnetic fields created by the sun.


Experts believe it will likely take many years before the technology and equipment are developed to send humans to this unexplored area of space. But if it does happen, massive spaceships could carry humans on long trips to distant stars. Two American researchers have explored one possible problem with such travel.


They considered the possibility that changes in human language could develop over time and lead to major communication problems with people on Earth.


The language experts are professors Andrew McKenzie from the University of Kansas, and Jeffrey Punske, of Southern Illinois University.The two recently published a paper on the subject that appears in the European Space Agencys online publication Acta Futura.


The paper considers very long trips necessary to reach interstellar space, estimated to be about 18 billion kilometers from Earth. It also examines the possibility of future colonization of distant stars.


Languages naturally change as communities grow more isolated from each other, the researchers note in the paper. The long isolation of a community could lead to enough differences in language to make it impossible for community members back home to understand.


"If youre on this (spaceship) for 10 generations, new concepts will emerge, new social issues will come up,and people will create ways of talking about them," McKenzie said in a statement.Such vocabulary would become specific to only that spaceship.


"People on Earth might never know about these words, unless theres a reason to tell them. And the further away you get, the less youre going to talk to people back home," McKenzie said.

“ 地球上的人可能永远不会知道这些词,除非有告诉他们的理由。你走得越远,回家跟其他人说的话就越少。”麦肯齐说。

The researchers noted that in addition to new words being used, the language of people traveling on spaceships and living in colonies would experience many other changes.


For example, the sounds of different letters would likely change over time, affecting not only individual words, but the whole "grammatical system," the paper states.


Major changes in word and sentence structure could also create systematic language barriers over time, the researchers said. "Given more time, new grammatical forms can completely replace current ones," McKenzie said.


The paper provides examples of how languages developed on our own planet because communities became isolated over time.Examples include "the Polynesian settlement of far-flung Pacific islands,and dialect development in relatively isolated European colonies."


McKenzie identified an example of a major language change on Earth during modern times. He described a way of speaking called "uptalk," when speakers end statements with a rising tone. He said this way of speaking is often mistaken for a question tone by those who are not aware of it. "Uptalk has only been observed occurring within the last 40 years, but has spread from small groups of young Americans and Australians to most of the English-speaking world," McKenzie said.

麦肯齐列举了一个近代地球上语言发生重大变化的例子。他描述了一种被称为“升调” 的说话方式,也就是说话者在陈述结束时用上升的音调结束发言。他说,这种说话方式经常被那些不了解的人误认为是问句语调。麦肯齐说:“升调只是在过去40年里才被发现的现象,但是已经从一小群年轻的美国人和澳大利亚人传播到了大多数英语国家。”

The researchers say one possible solution to limit communication problems would be to include language experts on spaceship crews. Another suggestion is to use sign language as a form of communication.


McKenzie added that space travelers might question whether it is even worth trying to learn how to communicate with people on Earth. But he believes there will always be a need, even if it is very limited. "You have to learn a little Earth English to send messages back, or to read the instruction manuals and information that came with the ship," he said.


I'm Bryan Lynn.