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  1. In Democracies and its Critics, Robert Dahl defends both democratic value and pluralist democracies, or polyarchies. Dahl argues convincingly that the idea of democracy rests on political equality—the equality capacity of all citizens to determine or (i)___ collective decisions. Of course, as Dahl recognizes, if hierarchical ordering is (ii)___ in any structure of government, and if no society can guarantee perfect equality in the resources that may give rise to political influence, the democratic principle of political equality is (iii)___ of full realization. So actual systems can be deemed democratic only as approximations to the ideal.


  A differ profoundly D reverse G distinction

  B convergent E conventionality H equilibrium

  C slightly differentiate F similarity I dissemination

  2. Although the legal systems of England and the United States are superficially similar, they (i)___in their approaches to and uses of legal reasons: substantive reasons in the United States, whereas in England the (ii) ___ is true. This (iii)___ reflects a difference in the visions of law that prevail in the two counties. In England the law has traditionally been viewed as a system of rules; the United States favors a vision of law as an outward expression of the community’s sense of right and justice.


  A hamper D circumstantial G incapable

  B influence E inevitable H determined

  C incorporate F neutral I possible

  3. Although some censure became (i)___ during the 1980s, Dahl himself seems to support some of such earlier criticism. Although he (ii)___ that some Western intellectuals demand more democracy from polyarchies than is possible, he nevertheless ends his book by asking what changes in structures and consciousness might make political life more (iii)___ in present polyarchies.


  A a fixed number of D revolution H reproduction of older ones

  B abundant E disease G modification of connections

  C minimal F generation I deduction of similarities

  4. A major tenet of the neurosciences has been that all neurons (nerve cells) in the brains of vertebrate animals are formed early in development. An adult vertebrate, it was believed, must make do with (i)___ neurons: those lost through (ii)___ or injury are not replaced, and adult learning takes place not through generation of new cells but through (iii)___ among existing ones.


  A characterized D monocratic G reveals

  B subdued E gerontocracic H regrets

  C overruled F democratic I approves

  5. Evidence that the defendant in a criminal prosecution has a prior conviction may (i)___ jurors to presume the defendant’s guilt, because of their preconception that a person previously convicted of a crime must be inclined toward repeated criminal behavior. That commonly held belief is at least a (ii)___; not all former convicts engage in repeated criminal behavior. Also, jury may give more probative weight than objective analysis would allow to vivid photographic evidence depicting a shooting victim’s wounds, or may (iii)___ the weight of defense testimony that is not delivered in a sufficiently forceful or persuasive manner.


  A stimulate D partial distortion of reality G underestimate

  B deter E vivid reflection of imagination H exaggerate

  C participate F precise calculation of certainty I reflect

  6. The usage suggests that the creation and critical interpretation of literature are not (i)___ but mechanical processes; that the author of any piece of writing is not (ii)___ artist, but merely a laborer who cobbles existing materials (words) into more or less conventional structures. The term deconstruction implies that the text has been put together like a building or a piece of machinery, and that it is in need of being taken apart, not so much in order to (iii)___ it as to demonstrate underlying inadequacies, false assumptions, and inherent contradictions.


  A instructive D a derivative G repair

  B literal E an insipid H qualify

  C organic F an inspired I construct

  7. Most psychologists, perplexed by the feelings they acknowledge are aroused by aesthetic experience, have claimed that these emotions are genuine, but different in kind from nonaesthetic emotions. This, however, is (i)___ rather than an empirical observation and consequently lacks explanatory value. On the other hand, Gombrich argues that emotional responses to art are (ii)___; art triggers remembrances of previously experienced emotions. These debates have prompted the psychologist Radford to argue that people do experience real melancholy or joy in responding to art, but that these are (iii)___ responses precisely because people know they are reacting to illusory stimuli.


  A a descriptive distinction D vivacious G zealous

  B a body of profound knowledge E synonymous H lugubrious

  C a valid evidence F ersatz I irrational

  8. Until recently many astronomers believed that asteroids travel about the solar system (i)___ satellites. These astronomers assumed this because they considered asteroid-satellite systems inherently (ii)___. Theoreticians could have told them otherwise: even minuscule bodies in the solar system can theoretically have satellites, as long as everything is in proper scale. If a bowling ball were orbiting about the Sun in the asteroid belt, it could have a pebble orbiting it as far away as a few hundred radii (or about 50 meters) (iii)___ the pebble to the Sun’s gravitational pull.


  A unaccompanied by D scathing G without losing

  B unprecedented by E unstable H before reaping

  C unparalleled by F soporific I as well as easing

  9. For analytical purposes (i)___ political conduct has traditionally been divided into two categories. However, there are some common crimes that are so (ii)___ from a political act that the entire offense is regarded as political. These crimes, which are called "(iii)___" political offenses, are generally nonextraditable.


  A salutary D unpredictable G aristocracy

  B equality E general H promotion

  C complicated F efficacious I grandiloquence

  10. Social democracy is a general ethical ideal, looking to human (i)___ and brotherhood, and inconsistent, in its radical form, with such institutions as the family and (ii)___ property. Democratic government, on the contrary, is merely a means to an end, an (iii)___ for the better and smoother government of certain states at certain junctures. It involves no special ideals of life; it is a question of policy, namely, whether the general interest will be better served by granting all people an equal voice in elections.


  A illegal D inseparable G ambiguous

  B political E distinct H vague

  C licit F capricous I relative



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