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  The anti-foundationalist belief that there is no secure basis for knowledge was worked out philosophically in the somewhat wearisome tracts of Jacques Derrida. Difference. Derrida tells us is the idea that any attempts to discuss universal features of human nature are merely products of local standards, often serving the vested interests of the status quo, and should rightly be dismantled and critiqued. Derrida was considered the originator of a profound challenge to the history of human thought. However, a century before Derrida. Darwin's theory of natural selection had made anti-foundationalism almost an inevitable consequence. From an evolutionary point of view, our understanding of the world depends on earlier and less-developed forms of understanding; meaning is continuously referred or deferred to other terms or experiences.

  1. Select the sentence which states a position with which the author does NOT agree.

  答案:Derrida was considered the originator of a profound challenge to the history of human thought.

  解析:这句话是说:D这个人是anti-f这个的始祖,然而这个是和the history of human thought是相反的。然后后面马上就跟了一个关键词however,所以很显然了,这句话就是我们要选的。然后我们再仔细看一下后面说了什么。他说在Derrida之前,达尔文已经证实了anti-f是不可避免的结果an inevitable consequence,所以Derrida不可能是anti-f的originator。

  2. The passage implies that which of the following beliefs is embraced by anti-foundationalists?

  A. In many cases humans cannot be completely secure in thinking that they fully understand a given situation.

  B. The meaning of an experience can best be understood outside the cultural context in which it occurs.

  C. Those who are part of the status quo are best able to dismantle and critique society.

  D. Derrida’s work would not have been possible without the prior ruminations of Darwin a century earlier.

  E. Darwin’s faith in the status quo is sufficient grounds to develop universal truths about cultural experiences.


  解析:作者认为anti-f的人认为there is no secure basis for knowledge,所以A是正确的。并且,作者认为,D的观点是关于人类本性的通性的任何说法都是基于local standards,所以说要想理解,就一定要基于文化背景,所以B是错的。C错误的引用了文章的信息。至于D,尽管文章说达尔文的理论使得Derrida的理论顺理成章的正确,但是D选项的说法太过于绝对。E选项是混淆选项,这个选项与anti-f的理论并没有什么关系。


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