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公众人物毕业演讲第13期:迈克尔·彭博哈佛大学2014毕业典礼演讲(5)

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He was attempting to repress and criminalize

他试图压制和定罪

those who sympathized with an economic systemthat was, even then, failing

那些赞同哪怕在当时都已经很失败的经济体制的人

McCarthy's Red Scare destroyed thousands of lives

麦卡锡的红色恐惧让数以千计的人失去了生命

but what was he so afraid of?

他害怕的是什么呢

An idea in this case, communism

是一种思想 也就是共产主义

that he and others deemed dangerous

他和一些人认为这种思想很危险

But he was right about one thing

不过他至少在一点上是正确的

Ideas can be dangerous

思想确实危险

They can change society

思想能够改变社会

They can upend traditions

思想能够颠覆传统

They can start revolutions

思想能够开启革命

That's why throughout history

这就是为什么历史上

those in authority have tried to repress ideas that threaten their

那些权贵要抑制思想 避免这些思想威胁到

power, their religion, their ideology, or their reelection chances

他们的权力 宗教 意识形态以及地位

That was true for Socrates and Galileo

苏格拉底和伽利略是这样

it was true for Nelson Mandela and Václav Havel

纳尔逊?曼德拉和瓦茨拉夫?哈维尔是这样

and it has been true for Ai Wei Wei, Pussy Riot

艾未未 造反猫咪乐队

and the kids who made the "Happy" video in Iran

以及在伊朗制作"快乐"视频的孩子们也是这样

Repressing free expression is a natural human weakness

压抑自由言论表达是人类本性上的弱点

and it is up to us to fight it at every turn

每次出现时 我们都需要同它进行斗争

Intolerance of ideas whether liberal or conservative

对思想的不宽容 无论是自由还是保守派思想

is antithetical to individual rights and free societies

都是同个人权利和自由社会背道而驰的

and it is no less antithetical to great universities and first-rate scholarships

以上这些自然也适用于伟大大学和顶尖学者

There is an idea floating around college campuses including here at Harvard I think

大学校园正流传着一种观点 我想哈佛也不例外

that scholars should be funded only if their work conforms to a

认为学者只有在研究符合特定正义观念的前提下

particular view of justice

才应获得资助

There's a word for that idea: censorship

这种观点可以用一个词来概括:审查

And it is just a modern-day form of McCarthyism

这是麦卡锡主义的当代表现

Think about the irony

想想这有多么讽刺

In the 1950s, the right wing was attempting to repress left wing ideas

40年代 右翼试图抑制左翼思想

Today, on many college campuses

而今天 在很多大学校园

it is liberals trying to repress conservative ideas

自由派则开始抑制保守派思想

even as conservative faculty members are at risk of becoming an endangered species

保守派教职员工甚至就快成为濒危物种

And that is probably nowhere more true than here in the Ivy League

这种情况尤其是在常春藤盟校最为突出

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