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第23章 状 语 23.4 形容词及分词(短语)作状语





23.4 形容词及分词(短语)作状语

23.4.1 形容词作状语

1) 形容词有时也可用作状语,常和句子的谓语用逗号隔开:

She went back to Boston, eager to see her children. 她回到波斯顿,急于见她的孩子。

He rushed over, anxious to help. 他跑了过来,亟想帮忙。

The boy nodded, pale and scared. 男孩点了点头,脸色苍白,十分惊恐。

The company laughed, friendly and pleased. 这伙人笑了,友好而高兴。

Greatly instrested, I asked him how to operate the machine. 我很感兴趣,问他这机器怎样操作。

Greatly disappointed, he decided to leave the place. 他大失所望,决定离开这个地方。

Helpless, I decided to give up the job. 我无可奈何,决定辞去这份工作。

Modest and unassuming, he soon put everybody at ease. 他谦逊没有架子,很快使大家感到无拘无束。

2) 有时和动词一起用,中间不加逗号:

He stood helpless, not knowing what to do. 他无可奈何地站着,不知如何是好。

He sat motionless. 他一动不动地坐着。

Barbary lay still and happy. 巴巴里静静地躺着,感到很高兴。

The hunter fired and the tiger fell dead. 猎人开枪,老虎倒地死了。

All men are born equal. 所有的人生而平等。

Don't throw that plastic bag away, it may come in handy. 别把那塑料袋扔掉,它可能会有用处的。

He flushed crimson with indignation. 他气得满脸通红。

He offered to supply him with another clock free of charge. 他答应免费给他另一台钟。

3) 有些形容词和宾语有较密切的关系(这些形容词介乎状语和宾语补语之间):

She pushed the door open. 她把门推开。

He pulled his belt tight. 他勒紧裤带。

They eat the fish raw. 这种鱼他们生吃。

We drink it hot. 我们喝热的。

They beat him uncurious. 他们把他打得失去知觉。

He knocked her senseless. 他把她打得不省人事。

This noise is drivingme mad (crazy). 这嘈杂的声音吵得我快疯了。

23.4.2 现在分词(短语)作状语

1) 现在分词(短语)也常可用作状语,通常有逗号把它和主谓语分开,可以表示伴随情况(a)、原因(b)、时间(c)等:

a.Opening the drawer, he took out a revolver. 他打开抽屉,拿出一把左轮手枪。

Taking off our shoes, we crept cautiously along the passage. 脱掉了鞋,我们小心翼翼地沿着通道爬行。

He lay still, staring blankly at the ceiling. 他静静地躺着,茫然地望着天花板。

She went out of the room, taking the flowers with her. 她带着那些花走出屋去。

Lena shook her head, smiling. 丽娜笑着摇了摇头。

b.Fearing that the police would recognize him, he never went out in daylight.由于怕被警察认出,他白天从不出去。

Being poor himself, he couldn't help us. 他自己就很穷,没有力量帮助我们。

Not knowing her address, we couldn't get in touch with her. 由于不知道她的地址,我们无法和她联系。

Feeling rather tired, she went to bed. 由于感到相当疲劳,她就睡觉了。

c.Hearing the news, they decided to act. 听到这消息,他们决定采取行动。

Seeing this, she became rather worried. 看到这情况,她很有些发愁。

Arriving there, he made up his mind to go in. 到达那里后,他决定进去。

Walking through the park, we saw a fine flower show. 我们从公园穿过时看到一个漂亮的花卉展。

2) 分词有时用完成形式(a),有时有自己的逻辑主语(b):

a.Having been there once, he knew the place fairly well. 由于去过那里一次,他很熟悉这地方。

Not having received instructions, he didn't know what to do. 由于没收到指示,他不知道该怎么办。

Having divorced twice, she didn't want to marry again. 由于离过两次婚,她不想再结婚。

I didn't feel terribly shocked, having expected all this. 这情况我早已料到,因此我并不觉得过于震惊。

b.The day being fine, we decided to have a picnic by the lake. 天气很好,我们决定到湖边野餐。

There being nothing else to discuss, he declared the meeting closed. 由于没有别的事要讨论,他宣布闭会。

Her sister being dead, she brought up her nephew. 她姐姐死了,她把她的外甥带大。

Weather permitting, we'll go on a tour of the lake district next week. 如果天气允许,我们下星期将去游览湖区。


3) 有些分词常和某些动词连用,中间不带逗号:

She was always ready to go skating (swimming, fishing). 她向来爱去溜冰(游泳、钓鱼)。

He came running in from the yard. 他从院子里跑了进来。

I have spent all day looking for you. 我花了一整天时间找你。

I wasted a whole afternoon trying to convince her. 我白费了一整个下午设法劝说她。

They were busy making artificial flowers. 他们忙着做纸花。

I lay tossing half the night. 我翻来覆去半夜没睡着。

He sat at his desk working. 他坐在办公桌前工作。

I had a difficult time persuading him. 我费了很大劲才说服他。



23.4.3 过去分词(短语)作状语

1) 用过去分词作状语的时候也不少,可表示伴随情况(a)、原因(b)、时间(c)等:

a.He entered, accompanied by his secretary. 他由秘书陪着走了进来。

Aroused by the crash, he leapt to his feet. 被轰然的响声惊醒,他一跃站了起来。

A woman came in, followed by her daughter. 一个妇女走了进来,后面跟着她的女儿。

Of course, said Rose, astonished. 罗丝惊讶地说,“当然?”

Seated in the car, the president waved to the crowd. 总统坐在车上向人群挥手。

b.Moved by his speech, many people volunteered to help in the work. 受他讲话的感动,许多人自愿参加这项工作。

Tom, horrified at what he had seen, could not say anything. 汤姆对看到的情况感到惊恐,什么话也说不出来。

Having been warned about the bandits, she left her valuables at home. 由于有人警告她有盗匪,她把贵重物品都留在家里。

c.Driven beyond endurance, he ran away from the plantation. 他忍无可忍,逃出了种植园。

Surprised at my reaction, she tried to console me. 我的反应使她吃惊,她设法安慰我。

Taken in time, the medicine will be quite effective. 如果及时服用,这药是相当有效的。

Looked at politically, it is an important question. 从政治上看,这是一个重要的问题。

2) 有些动词可以跟过去分词作状语,中间并不加逗号:

Ten others lay wounded there. 另外十个人受伤躺在那里。

He decided to lie hidden for a few days longer. 他决定再躲藏几天。

The valley lay spread out before us. 河谷展现在我们面前。

The thought lay buried in her heart. 这想法一直埋藏在她心中。

The girls stood grouped together at one end of the room. 姑娘们聚在一起,站在房间的一头。

I stand prepared to dispute it. 我准备对此提出异议。



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