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高中语法专练:vi. 不定式的时态和语态意义

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2020年06月22日

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vi. 不定式的时态和语态意义

1. 不定式的时态意义

1)一般式:不定式的动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生或是在其后发生。

They are learning to skate on the river. (同时)

他们正在河上学滑冰。

Where can we get some money to buy a computer? (未来)

我们能到哪里搞一些钱买一台电脑呢?

2)进行式:不定式的动作与谓语动词的动作是同时的,而且正在进行。

They seem to be getting on quite well.

他们似乎相处得很好。

He happened to be crying when I went to see him this morning.

今天上午我去看他的时候他正在哭呢。

3)完成式:不定式的动作先于谓语动词的动作。

a. happen, seem, be reported, be said, be likely等动词的复合谓语中,多使用完成式。

He happened to have gone out when I went to visit him yesterday.

it happened that he had gone out when I went to visit him yesterday.

昨天我去拜访他的时候他碰巧外出了。

She seemed to have heard about it already.

it seemed that she had heard about it already.

她似乎已经听说过此事了。

She is not likely to have got your letter.

她不可能收到了你的信。

He was said to have written a new book about space.

it was said that he had written a new book about space.

据说他写了一本有关太空的新书。

b. 在 “be +形容词”结构后使用完成式。

I am glad to have seen your father.

很高兴见到了你父亲。

I am sorry to have given you so much trouble.

很抱歉给你添了这么多麻烦。

You are lucky to have got the tickets to the concert of Zhou Jielun.

你很幸运搞到了周杰伦的音乐会的票。

He felt shamed to have been late for class again.

他又上课迟到了,觉得很没有脸面。

c. 完成式用在某些动词,如pretend, intend, expect, mean, hope, wish, think, was, were, want, would like等各表示过去未实现的愿望、期待或计划。

I wished to have finished the work ahead of time.

我原希望提前完成这项工作的。

I intended to have come to see you.

我原打算来看你的。

They were to have been married in May but had to put off the wedding till June.

他们原打算五月结婚的,但是不得不把婚礼推迟到六月。

He pretended to have been to America many times.

他假装去过美国很多次。

2. 不定式的语态意义

1)当不定式的逻辑主语是动作的承受者时,不定式用被动语态。

He was glad to be invited to give a speech at the meeting.

他很高兴受到邀请在会议上发言。

He hates to be laughed at in public.

他讨厌在公共场合受到嘲笑。

He wanted the letters to be typed at once.

他要求信件立刻打出来。

2)be + easy/difficult/fit/hard结构中,不定式的主动语态表被动意义。

English is not easy to learn well without working hard.

不下功夫英语是不容易学好的。

He is hard to get on well with.

很难与他相处好。

The food is not fit to eat .

这食物不适合吃。

3)there be结构中不定式多用主动语态表被动意义,也可用被动语态来表示。

There are a lot of work to do/to be done this afternoon.

今天下午有很多工作要做。

There is nothing to worry about/to be worried about .

没有任何可担心的事情。

There are many letters to write/to be written.

有很多信件需要写。

4)当不定式在句子中没有逻辑主语时,不定式最好用被动语态。

I will go to Beijing tomorrow. Have you anything to be taken to your parents?

我明天要去北京,你有什么要给父母带去的东西吗?

—I have finished typing your letters, sir.

先生,我打完了您的信件。

—I have no more letters to be typed , thank you.

我没有更多的信件需要打了,谢谢。

Let me show you the room to be used as reading room.

让我领你看看用作阅览室的房间吧。

5)在“be to+不定式”结构中,如果主语是不定式动作的承受着,通常用不定式的被动语态。

The results of the research are to be published soon.

研究结果不久将公布。

He was not to be disheartened by the failure.

他不会被失败搞得心灰意冷的。

6)当不定式动词是let(出租),blame, do等时,通常be to不定式结构中仍用不定式的主动式表示被动意义。

A lot remains to do.

很多事情有待完成。

You are to blame for what you have done.

你应该为你所做的受到谴责。

This house is to let.

这座房子要出租。

专项练习

1. Do let your mother know all the truth. She appears _______ everything.

A. to tell

B. to be told

C. to be telling

D. to have been told

2. Robert is said _______ abroad, but I don't know what country he studied in.

A. to have studied

B. to study

C. to be studying

D. to have been studying

3. One of the salesman in this shop is _______.

A. saying to have been fired

B. said to have been fired

C. saying to have fired

D. said do have fired

4. Mr. Brown is said _______ for Italy last week.

A. to have left

B. to have

C. to be leaving

D. to have been left

5. He claimed _______ in the supermarket when he was doing shopping yesterday.

A. being badly treated

B. to be treated badly

C. treating badly

D. to have been treated

答案速查 1-5 DABAD


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