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高中语法专练:viii. 带介词to的动词短语和不定式的省略

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2020年06月24日

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viii. 带介词to的动词短语和不定式的省略

1. 有些动词短语中的to是介词,后需要跟名词或动名词,注意要与动词不定式区分。

这些动词短语有get down to, keep to, find one's way to, put one's heart to, admit to, turn to, lead to, look forward to, put one's mind to, stick to, be related to, be familiar to, be accustomed to, get used to, be faithful to, see to, be equal to, be object to, in addition to, be open to等。

What led to his failing to pass the university examination this year?

是什么使他今年考不上大学呢?

Have you got used to living here?

你已经习惯了这里的生活吗?

Who sees to dealing with these problems?

是谁负责处理这些问题呢?

2. 一些情态动词ought to, need to, dare to, would/would like to, would love to, used to, have to, be going to, be able to后省略已经提到的或已知的内容。

—Does he live here?

—No, but he used to .

——他居住在这里吗?

——不,但是他过去在这里居住。

—Has she done washing?

—No, but she's going to .

——她洗过衣服了吗?

——没有,但是她就要洗呢。

I know you aren't willing to do it, but you have to .

我知道你不愿意做那件事情,但是你不得不做。

She wanted to go, but she wasn't able to .

她想去,但是不能去。

3. 动词want, plan, decide, love, like, promise, know, forget, prepare, hope, wish, try, refuse, hate, expect, fail, manage, agree, pretend, afford后省略已提到的或已知的内容。

—Did you get a ticket?

—No, I tried to . But there wasn't any left.

——你搞到票了吗?

——没有,我尝试了。但是没有余票了。

—Did you ask her to go with you?

—Yes, but she refused to .

——你请她和你一起去了吗?

——请过了。但是她拒绝了。

—Do you like playing jokes?

—Yes, but now I hate to.

——你喜欢开玩笑吗?

——是的。但是现在不想开。

4. 疑问词接不定式作宾语时,不定式后可省略已提到的或已知的内容。

I want to repair this TV set, but I don't know how to .

我想修理这台电视机,但是我不知道如何修理。

I'm going to buy a pen. Could you tell me where to ?

我要买一支钢笔,你能告诉我在哪里能买到吗?

Tom is the first to sing. I don't know who is the next to.

汤姆第一个要唱歌。我不知道下一个会是谁。

5. 形容词afraid, anxious, careful, eager, glad, happy, kind, lucky, proud, ready, sorry, able后可省略已提到的或已知的内容。

—Can the baby walk yet?

—No, he's not able to .

——这小孩会走路了吗?

——不,他还不会。

—Would you mind going to the cinema with me?

—No, I'll be glad to .

——你介意和我去看电影吗?

——不介意。我很喜欢去呢。

—Shall we have a drink?

—Ok. I'm eager to .

——我们喝点东西好吗?

——好吧。我很想喝。

6. 动词allow, ask, beg, cause, encourage, expect, force, get, order, permit, teach, prefer, want, warn, wish, command, forbid后作主补或者宾补的不定式可省略已提及或已知的内容。

—Why didn't you come this morning?

—Because I wasn't told to .

——今天早上你为什么不来呢?

——因为我没有被告知要来。

—I don't want to learn English, but my parents forced me to.

—Yesterday she wanted to go swimming alone, but the teacher didn't allow her to.

——我不想学英语,但是我父母强迫要我学。

——昨天她想独自去游泳,但是老师没有允许。

7. 作名词time, chance, duty, right, way定语的不定式可省略已提及或已知的内容。

I'll come as soon as I get a chance to .

我一有机会就来。

I'd like to do it now, but I haven't the time to .

我现在就想做此事,但是没有时间做。

8. it作形式主语,不定式作逻辑主语时,可省略已提及或已知的内容。

—Shall I give the dog a chocolate?

—It's better not to .

——我给那条狗一根巧克力好吗?

——最好别给它。

—Why didn't you get up at 4 o'clock this morning?

—Because it was impossible for me to .

——今天早上你为什么不在4点钟起床呢?

——因为对我来说那是不可能做到的。

9. 如果重复的不定式是 to be或者 to have时,通常保留be或have。

—Are you a party member?

—No, but I want to be .

——你是党员吗?

——不是。但是我也想成为党员。

—He hasn't finished his homework yet.

—Well, he ought to have.

——他还没有完成家庭作业呢。

——哦,他本应该完成了。

10. 作有些感官动词(feel, hear, listen to, let, have, make, see等)的宾补时,to也必须省去。

I don't want to steal, but my father made me .

我不想偷窃。但是我父亲迫使我那样做。

—Did anyone enter the room?

—No. I saw no one .

——有人进去过吗?

——没有,我没有看到任何人进去。

专项练习

1. Have you got used _______ here now?

A. to live

B. living

C. to living

D. to be living

2. Those who were object _______ the suggestions were asked to put up their hands.

A. to accepting

B. to accept

C. for accepting

D. for

3. —Would you like to go with us for an outing tomorrow?

—Yes, _______.

A. I'd like

B. I'd like to go

C. I'd love

D. I'd like to

4. Thomas wanted to buy a sports car, but he _______.

A. wasn't able to

B. wasn't able to afford

C. wasn't able

D. didn't able to

5. Will you show me _______ a guide book?

A. where to get

B. where to getting

C. where getting

D. where in getting

答案速查 1-5 CADAA


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