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高中语法专练:ii. 不定式、动名词作宾语时的区别

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2020年07月16日

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ii. 不定式、动名词作宾语时的区别

1. 表示抽象的、经常的、一般性的行为多用动名词;而表示特定的、具体的,特别是将来的行为,强调的是动作,多用不定式。

I like singing , but I hate to sing now.

我喜欢唱歌,但是我现在不愿唱。

2. 当作try, remember, stop, forget, regret, want, require, need, mean等动词宾语时,有明显差别:

1)forget to so sth. 忘记去做某事;forget doing sth.忘记做过某事

—The light in the office is still on.

—Oh, I forgot to turn it off.

——办公室的灯还亮着。

——哦,我忘了关了。

I forgot meeting you at someplace the other day.

我忘记前几天在哪里见过你。

2)remember to do sth. 记住要去做某事;remember doing sth.记得做过某事

You must remember to close the window when you leave.

你走时一定记住关门。

I remember being taken to Beijing when I was a child.

我记得小时候曾被带去北京。

3)regret to do sth. 对要做的某事表示抱歉;regret doing sth.后悔做过某事

I regret to say I can't come to help you.

我要很遗憾地说我不能帮助你。

I regretted missing the first bus that morning.

我很遗憾那天早上错过了第一班车。

4)try to do sth. 尽力做某事;try doing sth. 试着用某种方法做某事

Let's try knocking at the back door.

咱们试着敲后门吧。

He tried hard to pretend to share in the pleasure of his officials.

他极力装出与官员同乐的样子。

5)want to do sth.想要做某事;want doing某事需要被做

She wants to go to school.

她想上大学。

The clothes want mending ./to be mended .

这些衣服需要修补。

6)mean to do sth. 打算做某事;mean doing sth意味着做某事

I mean to come early today.

我今天打算早点儿来。

Missing the train means waiting for another hour.

错过了火车就意味着再等一小时。

7)stop to do sth.停下来去做某事;stop doing sth.停止做某事

He stopped to talk with me.

他停下来与我谈话。

They stopped talking when the teacher came in.

当老师进来的时候他们停止了说话。

8)go on to do sth.接着做另一件事;go on doing sth.继续不断地做同一件事

They went on doing their work after a short rest.

稍事休息他们继续工作了。

Having washed the clothes, mother went on to sweep the floor.

妈妈洗完了衣服,接下来拖地板。

9)can't help (to) do sth.不能帮助做某事;can't help doing sth.禁不住做某事;can't help but do sth.不得不做某事

He couldn't help laughing when he heard the news.

当听到消息时,他禁不住笑了。

I'm sorry I can't help to repair the radio.

很遗憾我不能帮你修收音机。

He is such a nobleman that I can't help but respect him.

他如此高尚,我不得不敬重他。

10)be afraid to do sth.不敢做某事;be afraid of doing sth.担心做某事

The little girl was afraid to go out at night.

那个小女孩儿夜间不敢外出。

She was afraid of making the same mistakes.

她担心犯同样的错误。

11)be used to do sth. 被用来做某事;be/get used to doing sth. 习惯于做某事

Coal can be used to make a fire.

煤可以用来生火。

The boy is used to doing his homework by himself.

那个男孩儿习惯了独自做作业。

12)require sb. to do sth.要求某人做某事;require doing某事需要被做

This letter requires answering with care.

这封信需要认真回复。

One of his orders required all the people to bow to him.

他的命令之一要求所有人向他鞠躬。

You are required to hand in your homework by next Saturday.

要求你们下周六前交作业。

I require your homework to be handed in by next Saturday.

我要求你们下周六前作业上交。

13)be sure to do sth.别人看来主语一定会做某事; be sure of doing sth.主语自信会做某事

I think he is sure to live for 100 years but he said he was sure of living for 200 years.

我认为他一定能活到100岁,但是他说他自信会活到200岁。

14)like doing sth.表示一贯的爱好,like to do sth.表示具体的某次行动。

I like swimming , but I don't like to swim right now.

我喜欢游泳,但此刻不想游泳。

3. 只接动名词,不接不定式作宾语的动词有suggest, advice, finish, postpone, delay, imagine, require, admit, mind, pardon, excuse, avoid, risk, practice, escape, miss, allow, permit, consider, understand, enjoy, appreciate等。

They are considering risking escaping from the prison.

他们在考虑冒险越狱。

I felt deeply sorry for having missed listening to the concert.

我为错过了听音乐会深感遗憾。

4. 只接不定式,不接动名词作宾语的动词:

1)wish, hope expect, long, desire;

2)plan, mean, prepare, attempt, intend, tend;

3)agree, consent, refuse, decline;

4)seek, ask, beg;

5)choose, decide, determine, promise;

6)manage, volunteer;

7)claim, fail;

8)dare, pretend

We decided to have a meeting this afternoon.

我们决定今天下午开个会。

He promised to buy me a present for my birthday.

他承诺给我买件生日礼物。

She pretended to be sleeping when I came in.

我进来时她假装在睡觉。

5. 接有补语时,补语是名词good, use, a waste of, 形容词worth等时,用动名词作宾语。

I don't think it worth trying to persuade him to come here in time every day.

我认为不值得试图说服他每天按时来这里。

Do you consider it any good talking with him in class?

你认为课堂上与他交谈有好处吗?

6. begin, start在下列情况下通常用不定式。

1)谓语已经是进行时形式。

We are beginning to learn a second foreign language.

我们将要再学一门外语。

2)表示一种自然现象。

It began to rain at 3 o'clock this afternoon.

今天下午三点天开始下雨了。

3)后接心理活动的动词。

I began to realize I was wrong.

我开始认识到我错了。

专项练习

1. I like _______ very much, but I don't like _______ this morning.

A. swimming; swimming

B. to swim; to swim

C. swimming; to swim

D. to swim; swimming

2. Little Jim should love _______ to the theatre this evening.

A. to be taken

B. to take

C. being taken

D. taking

3. —Did you close the door?

—Yes, I remember _______ it.

A. to close

B. to closing

C. closing

D. closed

4. Remember _______ the newspaper when you have finished it.

A. putting back

B. having put back

C. to put back

D. will put back

5. I'm sorry I forgot _______ your dictionary. Let's borrow one from Li Ming.

A. to take

B. taking

C. to bring

D. bringing

6. Henry always forgets things he has done. Yesterday he forgot _______ and looked for it everywhere.

A. to post the letter

B. to have the letter posted

C. to have posted the letter

D. having posted the letter

7. My brother regretted _______ a lecture given by Professor Liu.

A. missing

B. to miss

C. missed

D. being missed

8. I regret _______ you that we are unable to offer you a job.

A. informing

B. having informed

C. to inform

D. to informing

9. I felt tired with walking, so I stopped _______ a break for an hour.

A. having

B. to have

C. taking

D. to taking

10. The teacher told the students to stop _______ to him.

A. to write and listen

B. writing and listening

C. to write and listening

D. writing and to listen

11. —What can we do to help Li Hai.

—All we can do is to try _______ that he ought to study more.

A. making him to realize

B. making him realize

C. to make him realize

D. to make him to realize

12. You didn't hear us come in last night. That's good. We tried _______ noisy.

A. to be not

B. not to be

C. not being

D. being not

13. He finished his homework, then he went on _______ a letter.

A. write

B. writing

C. with

D. to write

14. The grass has grown so tall that it needs _______.

A. to cut

B. to be cut it

C. cutting

D. being cut

15. —You've come just in time to help us.

—Fine, what needs _______?

A. I do

B. done

C. to be done

D. to do

16. You didn't need _______ him the news; it just made him sad.

A. telling

B. tell

C. to tell

D. that you would tell

17. These young trees require _______ carefully.

A. looking after

B. to look after

C. to be looked at

D. looking for

18. The sentence wants _______ once more.

A. to explain

B. explaining

C. being explained

D. to be explained it

19. He hasn't got used _______ in the countryside yet.

A. live

B. to live

C. to living

D. living

20. A very well-known person _______ in this house.

A. is used to live

B. used to live

C. is used to living

D. used to living

21. The clock was beginning _______ twelve and everybody held their breath.

A. strike

B. to strike

C. striking

D. struck

22. I begin _______ the meaning, which begins _______.

A. understanding; to be clear

B. to understand; to be clear

C. understanding; being clear

D. to understand; being clear

23. The police forbid _______ here.

A. park

B. parking

C. to park

D. to be parked

24. The heavy rain forbade me _______ to school.

A. from my coming

B. to come

C. come

D. my coming

25. Tom's parents do not allow Tom _______ swimming.

A. going

B. to go

C. go

D. goes

26. Sorry, we don't allow _______ in the lecture room.

A. to smoke

B. smoke

C. smoking

D. to smoking

27. Visitors are not permitted _______ the park after dark, because of the lack of lighting.

A. to enter

B. entering

C. to enter in

D. entering in

28. They don't permit _______ noise here.

A. to make

B. make

C. making

D. made

29. Missing the train means _______ for an hour.

A. to wait

B. to be waited

C. being waited

D. waiting

30. I meant _______ you, but I was so busy.

A. to call on

B. calling on

C. to call at

D. calling at

31. I would appreciate _______ back this afternoon.

A. you to call

B. you call

C. your calling

D. you're calling

32. She enjoys _______ light music.

A. to hear

B. hearing

C. listening to

D. to listen to

33. You can keep the book until you _______.

A. have finished reading

B. finish to read

C. will finish reading

D. have finished to read

34. Ali said that she wouldn't mind _______ alone at home.

A. left

B. being left

C. to be left

D. leaving

35. It was said that they were considering _______ from the prison at that time.

A. risking to escape

B. risking escaping

C. to risk escaping

D. to risk to escape

36. Our monitor suggested _______ a discussion of the subject.

A. to have

B. should have

C. have

D. having

37. We are considering _______ a new plan.

A. making

B. being made

C. to make

D. to have made

38. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed _______.

A. catching

B. to be caught

C. being caught

D. to catch

39. Can you imagine yourself _______ on a desert island?

A. staying

B. stay

C. have stayed

D. being stayed

40. We can understand why he avoids _______ to us.

A. to speak

B. speech

C. having spoken

D. speaking

41. Please excuse my _______ in without _______.

A. come; asking

B. coming; asking

C. to come; being asked

D. coming; being asked

42. Why have they delayed _______ the new school?

A. opening

B. to open

C. having opened

D. to have opened

43. She _______ the key.

A. admited taking

B. admitted taking

C. admitted having taken

D. admitted to have taken

44. I got to the station earlier than others. I couldn't risk _______ the train.

A. missing

B. would miss

C. to miss

D. missed

45. I hope _______ him as soon as possible.

A. see

B. seeing

C. to see

D. to have seen

46. I expected _______ your friend, but my car broke down on the way.

A. I'll meet

B. meeting

C. to meeting

D. to meet

47. We are planning _______ Europe this summer.

A. to pay a visit

B. pay a visit to

C. visiting

D. to visit

48. She told me that she had decided _______ again.

A. be not late

B. not be late

C. not to be late

D. to be not late

49. Almost everyone fails _______ on the first try.

A. in passing his driver's test

B. to pass his driver's test

C. to have passed his driver's test

D. passing his driver's test

50. The two weavers pretended _______ very hard, though they did nothing at the looms.

A. work

B. working

C. to be worked

D. to be working

51. When he got off the train, it happened _______.

A. to rain

B. to be raining

C. raining

D. to raining

52. I didn't _______ it until you had explained how.

A. manage to do

B. managed to do

C. manage to have done

D. manage doing

53. The young driver offered _______ the patient out of the car.

A. to hand

B. handing

C. hands

D. would hand

54. The white horse refused _______ the stone wall.

A. its jumping

B. to jump

C. jumping up

D. to jump at

55. They don't agree _______ more time on the subject, neither do I.

A. to spending

B. to spend

C. with spending

D. on spend

答案速查 1-5 CACCC 6—10 DACBD 11—15 CBDCC 16—20 CABCB 21—25 BBBBB 26—30 CACDA 31—35 CCABB 36—40 DACAD 41—45 DACAC 46—50 DDCBD 51—55 BAABB


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