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高中语法专练:vi. 非谓语动词作定语:其逻辑主语是被修饰的名词

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2020年07月20日

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vi. 非谓语动词作定语:其逻辑主语是被修饰的名词

1. 动名词作定语,只说明名词的用途,与所修饰名词是使用关系而非主谓关系。

This is my new sleeping car .

这是我的新小卧车。

They are in the meeting room now.

他们现在会议室里。

2. 现在分词作定语与所修饰的词是主谓关系;有进行和持续意义,通常与谓语动作或状态同时进行或发生;或者分词本身有一个时间状语或者分词动作发生的时间由上下文明确表示出来。

Do you know the boy lying under the tree?

你认识躺在树下的男孩儿吗?

There was a terrible noise following the sudden burst of light.

突然闪光之后传来一声可怕的巨响。

The house standing there was built five years ago.

矗立在那边的房子是五年前建的。

The boy reading in that corner yesterday was my brother.

昨天在拐角读书的那个男孩儿是我弟弟。

注意: 现在分词完成式不作定语; being不能单独作定语:

Anyone who's outside/being outside must come in at once.

在外边的任何人必须马上进来。

The teacher scolded the boy who had broken the window/having broken the window .

老师责备了打破窗户的那个男生。

3. 现在分词被动式作定语:定语与被修饰词是被动关系,表示正在进行的动作或与谓语同时发生。

The large building being built down the street will be a hospital.

沿街在建的那座大楼将是一家医院。

He asked who the man being operated on was.

他问在接受手术的那个男的是谁?

The building built last year/having been built is in use now.

去年建的那座大楼在使用中。

注意: 现在分词完成式的被动式不能作定语。

4. 不定式作定语

1)常含有将来时间概念,或含有情态意义,即含有should, can, must , have to, worth等意义。

He has borrowed some books to read(=he'll read) .

他买了几本书要读。

2)The first/last/second/best/worst/only +名词,用不定式作定语,可表示过去意义。

He was the last student to come to school today.

今天他是最后一个到校的学生。

This is the only way to work out the problem.

这是唯一能算出这道题的方法。

3)与被修饰词有动宾关系,不定式的逻辑主语是句中另外某个词或暗含。

Do you have anything to say for yourself?

你有什么要为自己说的吗?

Please lend me a book to read .

请借给我一本书读。

4)作表示时间、地点、方式、同位关系的名词的定语。

It is time for us to go to school .

我们该上学去了。

Let's think of a way to kill the wolf .

咱们想出一个杀狼的办法吧。

He has only a cold room to live in .

他仅有一间寒舍可居住。

They had no chance

to go to school.

他们没有上学机会。

5. 不定式的被动式常指一个未来的被动的动作。

Are you going to the party to be given tomorrow ?

你要参加明天举行的晚会吗?

The questions to be answered are on page 40.

要回答的问题在第四十页。

6. 过去分词表示一个已经完成的动作或没有一定的时间性,与所修饰的名词构成被动关系,强调状态。

Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa.

应邀到会的大多数画家来自南非。

I hate to see letters written in pencil.

我讨厌看见铅笔写的信。

Have you read any short stories written by Lu Xun?

你读过鲁迅写的短篇小说吗?

7. “介词+动名词”作定语与不定式作定语在某些词后无区别。

1)在名词opportunity, chance, way后

This is the best opportunity to invite (opportunity of inviting ) him to dinner.

这是邀请他赴宴的最好机会。

There'll be a chance of visiting (= to visit) John, I think.

我觉得有机会拜访约翰。

That is the best way of doing it (= to do it) .

那是做那件事的最好办法。

2)在动词decide, agree后

They agreed on sharing (= to share) the cost of the house.

他们同意分摊房费。

In the end she decided on buying (= to buy) the green hat.

最后她决定买一顶绿色的帽子。

3)在形容词content, fortunate后

They were quite content with staying (= to stay) where they were.

他们乐意呆在原地。

She is fortunate for having (= to have) such a good son.

她很幸运有这么一个好儿子。

专项练习

1. The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to _______.

A. sit

B. sit on

C. be sat

D. be sat on

2. I'm not sure which restaurant _______.

A. to eat on

B. eating at

C. to eat at

D. for eating

3. —What do you think of this middle school?

—It is a very good _______.

A. school to study

B. school to study in

C. studying school

D. school for children to study

4. —I'd like to buy an expensive camera.

—Well, we have several models _______.

A. to choose from

B. of choice

C. to be chosen

D. for choosing

5. We had no money and no place _______.

A. to live in

B. to live

C. living in

D. living

6. He loves parties. He is always the first _______ and the last _______.

A. coming;leaving

B. to come; to leave

C. comes; leaves

D. come; leave

7. Before he had no chance _______.

A. to go to school

B. to go school

C. going to school

D. to go to the school

8. Now the need _______ other people's language is becoming greater and greater.

A. to learn

B. learning

C. to be learned

D. being learned

9. This is an important matter. I need at least a day or two _______.

A. of thinking over it

B. to think it over

C. of thinking it over

D. to think over it

10. It is time _______ wheat.

A. for sow

B. of sowing

C. to sow

D. to sowing

11. “Do you have any clothes _______ today?” the maid asked.

A. to wash

B. to be washed

C. wash

D. be washed

12. This is the best play _______ last year.

A. to perform

B. to be performed

C. performing

D. to have performed

13. This book can be used in _______ countries.

A. English-speaking

B. English-spoken

C. English-spoke

D. English-speak

14. At present, English is the main subject _______ here.

A. to be taught

B. being taught

C. teaching

D. to be teaching

15. Snow was falling when they went along a mountain path _______ to the front.

A. to lead

B. led

C. leading

D. being led

16. —Who are those people with the banner?

—A group _______ itself the League for Peace.

A. calling

B. calls

C. called

D. is called

17. “The picture writing” _______ long long ago is hard for us to understand today.

A. having been drawn

B. being drawn

C. was drawn

D. drawn

18. How I regret the days _______ in doing the useless work!

A. which wasted

B. wasted

C. which wasting

D. having been wasted

19. The students, _______ at the way the questions were put, didn't know the answers to them.

A. they surprising

B. surprised

C. their being surprised

D. surprise

20. The pen _______ belongs to me.

A. which it is on the table

B. lying on the table

C. is on the table

D. which on the table

答案速查 1-5 BCBAA 6—10 BAABC 11—15 BBABC 16—20 ADBBB


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