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高中语法专练:vii. 非谓语动词作状语:其逻辑主语就是整个句子的主语

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2020年07月21日

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vii. 非谓语动词作状语:其逻辑主语就是整个句子的主语

1. 不定式作状语,常表示目的或结果。

Just now he came here in order to borrow my bike.

刚才他来这儿借我的自行车。

Tom is too young to go to school.

汤姆太小了不能上学。

2. 分词作状语也表示结果,但常表示时间、原因、条件、方式或伴随。

1)“only +不定式”表示的是一个相反的或出乎意料的结果,意为“不料,反而,结果却,想不到”;“only +现在分词”通常是一个自然而然的或意料之中的结果。

He lifted a rock only to have it drop on his own feet.

他搬起石头砸了自己的脚。

He rushed to the door, only to discover that it was locked.

他冲到门口,只是发现门锁着。

He dropped the plate, only breaking it into pieces.

他把盘子弄掉了,摔成了碎片。

2)表示时间、原因、条件、伴随、方式等用分词。

When leaving the airport, they waved again and again to us.

当离开机场的时候,他们不断对我们招手。

Being ill, he didn't come to school yesterday.

由于生病他昨天没来上学。

Given more time, he could do it better.

给他更多的时间,他就能做得更好。

She sat at the desk, reading a book .

她坐在书桌边读书。

3)分词作状语,其逻辑主语一定要与主句的主语保持一致。

Hearing the good news, he couldn't keep back his tears of joy.

听到这个好消息,他禁不住高兴地流出了眼泪。

Seen from the hill, the park looks more beautiful.

从山上望去,公园看上去更美了。

Seeing from the hill, we can find the park more beautiful.

从山上看去,我们发现公园更美了。

3. 分词一般式表示分词的动作与谓语的动作同时发生或紧接着发生;分词完成式表示分词的动作先于谓语的动作。

Hearing the news, he got angry.

听到这消息,他生气了。

While walking along the street, I met a friend of mine.

沿街走的时候,我遇到了一位朋友。

Having worked for three hours, he took a rest.

工作了三个小时,他休息了一会儿。

Having lived in Beijing for many years, he knows the city very well.

在北京住了很多年后,他对北京很了解。

4. 如果句子的主语(分词的逻辑主语)是分词动作的执行者,用现在分词的主动式;如果是分词动作的承受者用过去分词;如果既表示被动又强调先后关系,用分词完成式的被动式。

Having been shown the lab, they were led to the dinning hall.

被领着看了图书馆之后,他们被领着去餐厅。

Heated to 100℃, water begins to boil.

加热到100摄氏度之后,水开始沸腾了。

Compared with my classmates, I still have a long way to go.

与同学们相比,我还有很长的路要走。

注意:

如果分词的逻辑主语和句子的主语不是同一人或物时,要用分词的独立结构。

Having finished their work/Their work having been finished , they went home.

工作完成后,他们回家了。

The visitors have come, following some workers/some workers following them .

游客们已经进来了,跟着几个工人。

专项练习

1. This dish cloth is _______ for me to dry the dishes.

A. so wet

B. wet enough

C. as wet

D. too wet

2. The house is much too small _______.

A. for us to live

B. for us to live in

C. that we can't live

D. that we can't live in

3. The light was strong enough _______.

A. read by

B. to read by

C. read under

D. to read

4. He didn't speak slowly enough _______.

A. everyone understood

B. for everyone understood

C. for everyone to understand

D. for everyone to be understood

5. Would you be _______ to show me the way to the City Hall?

A. good enough

B. good enough as

C. so good

D. as good as

6. He was so foolish _______ his car unlocked.

A. to leave

B. that leave

C. as to leave

D. for him to leave

7. Napoleon spoke so loudly as to _______ in front of his soldiers.

A. hear

B. be heard

C. listen

D. be listened

8. Do you think him easy _______.

A. to get along with

B. to get along

C. to be got along with

D. to be got along

9. The water is good _______.

A. to drink it

B. to be drunk

C. to drink

D. at drinking

10. His speech in English was difficult _______.

A. in following

B. for being followed

C. to follow

D. to be followed by

11. Good-bye, Mr. Jones. I'm pleased _______.

A. for meeting you

B. to meet you

C. to have been meeting you

D. to have met you

12. I have enjoyed my visit here. I'll be very sorry _______.

A. for leaving

B. of leaving

C. to leave

D. left

13. I spoke to him kindly _______ him.

A. to not frighten

B. so as not to frighten

C. in order to not frighten

D. for not frightening

14. Tom is waiting _______ the doctor.

A. to see

B. for to see

C. for seeing

D. for see

15. I went to see him _______ him out.

A. finding

B. find

C. only to find

D. only found

16. _______ , one needs much practice.

A. To learn swimming well

B. To learn to swim well

C. Swimming to be learned well

D. Learning swim well

17. _______ , I don't like her sister.

A. Telling the truth

B. Been told the truth

C. To tell the truth

D. To tell the true

18. _______ for several weeks, the city was short of food and clothing.

A. As having flooded

B. As flooding

C. Having been flooded

D. to flood

19. _______ tomorrow's lessons, I have no time to go out with you.

A. Not preparing

B. Not prepare

C. Not being prepared

D. Not having prepared

20. _______ from the space, the earth looks like a blue ball covered by water.

A. See

B. Saw

C. Seeing

D. Seen

21. Look around when _______ the street.

A. across

B. crossing

C. crossed

D. to be crossing

22. We walked as fast as we could, _______ to catch the 9:30 train.

A. hoping

B. to hope

C. we hoped

D. being hoped

23. _______ what he had already, the new stamps were not very interesting.

A. Comparing with

B. Being compared with

C. To compare with

D. Compared with

24. _______ the cry for help, people immediately rushed out of the rooms.

A. To hear

B. Hearing

C. Having heard

D. They hearing

25. It _______ heavily, the outing had to be put off.

A. being rained

B. being raining

C. raining

D. rains

26. The sun _______ , they went home.

A. set down

B. setted

C. setting

D. sets

27. _______ the concert began.

A. The listeners having taken their seats

B. Having taken their seats

C. Have taken their places

D. The listeners to have taken their places

28. _______ Hello, he reached out his hand.

A. Said

B. Saying

C. Talked about

D. Talking to

29. He rushed into the room, _______.

A. with sweat dripping

B. sweat dripped

C. dripped sweat

D. sweated

30. _______ , I went out for a walk.

A. There was nothing to do

B. There being nothing to do

C. There had nothing to do

D. There were nothing to do

答案速查 1-5 DBBCA 6—10 CBACC 11—15 DCBAC 16—20 BCCDD 21—25 BADBC 26—30 CABAB


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