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英语六级考试——写作高分攻略之权威解析

所属教程:英语六级作文

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2020年09月09日

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二、权威解析

(一)解析出题人

   1.出题内容

   六级考试的作文内容为社会、文化或日常生活的一般常识,不涉及知识面过广、专业性太强的内容。具体说来可以分为三个方面:

   1)关于大学和大学生的话题,例如:

   My View on University Ranking(2010年12月)

   Due Attention Should Be Given to the Study of Chinese(2010年6月)

   College Students'Mental Health(2008年12月)

   2)常见的社会问题,例如:

   The Impact of the Internet on Interpersonal Communication(2012年6月)

   The Certificate Craze(2012年6月)

   Should Parents Send Their Kids to Art Classes?(2009年12月)

   On the Importance of a Name(2009年6月)

   Will e-books Replace Traditional Books?(2008年6月)

   3)人生哲理类话题,例如:

   A smile is the shortest distance between two people(2013年6月)

   Good habits result from resisting temptation(2013年6月)

   On Maintaining Trust(2012年12月)

   The Way to Success(2011年12月)

   根据这三类既往考题的特点,我们可以设想出更多的六级写作练习题或模拟题,例如:

   Should Reserved Seats Be Acknowledged on Campus?

   Do Libraries Become Useless at the Age of Information?

   Equality of Education opportunity

   Giving Teenagers Cell Phones

   Generation Gap

   Everything Is Difficult Before It Is Easy

   2.出题形式

   六级考试作文的出题方式有:命题作文、图画或图表作文、根据所给文章(英文或中文)写出文章摘要或大意、关键词作文等。但后两类迄今为止没有考过,今后考的可能性也不大,原因在于摘要型写作不利于考生的主观发挥,而关键词作文的发挥余地又太大,不便于大规模改卷评分。根据具体特点,历年六级考试作文真题可以分为六个类型,在本章第二节会有详述。改革样题及考试真题反映出近年六级写作向更实用的方向发展,从过去单一的提纲式写作演变为图画作文、图表作文、名言警句评论等多样化的题目形式,但从根本上来看,它们都没有超出话题作文的范畴。

   3.时间与词数

   六级考试作文要求在30分钟内写出一篇150~200词的文章。具体注意事项如下:

   1)30分钟的时间要做到合理安排。建议的安排是“5+20+5”。前面的5分钟是审题和构思,中间20分钟写作,最后5分钟检查文中可能犯的错误。这其中又要特别注意:

   ① 前面的5分钟只是做审题和构思。审题包括审查题目和提纲,两者都比较重要。给定的题目不得擅自改动;给定的提纲不得歪曲。构思不可也不必花太长时间。愿意的话可以在准考证的空白处用几个关键词勾勒一下写作思路,其实通常打腹稿即可。并不建议打草稿,因为考场上是不发草稿纸的,而且也不允许考生带草稿纸。并且,打草稿的时间过长可能导致最后没有时间誊写。

   ② 最后5分钟也特别关键,最少也应留出2、3分钟,来检查和改正文中的错误。因为恰恰是一些没有改正过来的低级错误导致了作文的低分。但要改动的主要是语法和拼写错误,尽量避免出现成句或成段的改动,导致卷面凌乱。

   2)词数最好写到180~200词,这是对历年优秀范文词数统计后得出的结论。词数少于150会被扣分,词数太多又容易引起阅卷人的反感,而且片面追求词数容易导致忽视语言质量,得不偿失。

(二)解析阅卷人

   1.阅卷步骤与原则

   CET作文题采用总体评分(Global Scoring)的方法。阅卷人员就总的印象给出奖励分(Reward Scores),而不是按语言点的错误数目扣分。通过分析阅卷的过程与阅卷人员的心理,我们可以制订自己的应对策略。

   1)作文的外观 文如其人,作文的外观在很大程度上影响着一个阅卷人对一篇文章的好恶。外观包括字体是否工整、美观;卷面是否清楚、洁净。

   2)作文的内容 外观毕竟不是决定性因素,内容才是更重要的。题目中要求的内容要点必须写全,否则会按比例扣分。

   3)作文的语言 语言是一篇文章的灵魂,是最重要的评分依据,包括语法、拼写的正确性和词句的准确性、多样性。

   4)作文的逻辑 六级作文多为议论文,或带有议论性文字的文章,因此要尊重英语的议论逻辑,保证有论点、有论据,且开宗明义,做到语言形式上的连贯性。

   2.阅卷实例与分析

   具体评卷示例如下:

   2013年6月真题

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay commenting on the remark “A smile is the shortest distance between two people.” You can cite examples to illustrate your point.You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.

   样卷

   ①Nowadays it is easier for us to meet more and more people who even didn't know us.How can we make friend with them as fast as possible.A smile may be is the shortest distance between two people.

   In my point of view,someone's first sight is important for others to recognize him.A person who is always smiling would easy to be regarded as easy going and warm heart.Otherwise he may be thought as curious.Second,smiling can cheer others up.In the daily life,we are always expecting someone smile to us when we feel disappointed.We will soon form a good relationship between us.Last but not the least,smiling can also calm yourself down when you meet strangers or someone important.For example,when you are going to attend an interview or make reported to your new boss,it is good for us to smile before your speeching.Others will think that you have prepared for it and are worth to trust.

   Because of the three reasons I have told before,I deeply believe a smile is the best way for us to make friends and shorten the distance between others.

   通篇看来,这篇作文基本上做到了内容切题,层次清楚。但是,文章的语言出现了较多的语法错误,其中有一些是严重错误。有些地方表达思想不够清楚,文字勉强连贯。因此,按照15分为满分的分制,这篇文章得8分。大致修改如下:

   Nowadays it is easier than before for us to meet people who do not even know us.How can we make friends with them as fast as possible?A smile may be the shortest distance between two people.

   From my point of view,a smile is valuable in the following ways.First,the first impression is important in the process of communication.A person who is always smiling would easily be regarded as easygoing and warmhearted.Otherwise he may be considered as cold or proud.Second,smiling can cheer others up.In the daily life,we are always expecting someone to smile to us when we feel disappointed.We will soon form a good relationship between us.Last but not least,smiling can also calm yourself down when you meet strangers or someone important.For example,when you are going to attend an interview or make a report to your new boss,it is good for you to smile before your speech.Others will think that you have prepared for it and are worth trusting.

   Because of the three reasons I have mentioned above,I firmly believe that a smile is the best way for us to make friends and shorten the distance between us and others.

   ②The remark,“A smile is the shortest distance between two people”,emphasizes the importance of smile in our daily life.And I could hardly express how much I agree with it.

   Smile does have magic power,which costs nothing but brings more than you can expect.Last month,I was confined to the hospital with flu,feeling lonely and miserable.Many friends came to see me with brunches of flowers and fresh fruits,but what impressed me most was their smiles.Their warm and encouraging smiles were like sunshine,injecting vigor into my heart and I felt they were always around me,loving me and supporting me.

   Smile can also narrow the distance between strangers.When the terrible earthquake struck Wenchuan,thousands of people got severely injured.I saw on TV the nurses treated the patients with smiles,and volunteers served with smiles,comforting and encouraging the survivors.Their smile brightened up the days for the misfortune people.

   Such is the power of smile.Not only can smile deepen the friendship but also convey the positive energy from people to people.Therefore,smile to people around,and we can change the world into a better one.

   通篇看来,这篇作文既做到了内容切题,层次清楚,又做到了语法正确(只有个别小错误),语言闪光;而且表达思想清楚,文字通顺,连贯性好,完全有理由得14分。以下是对这篇作文的修订,并对闪光点做了批注:

   The remark “A smile is the shortest distance between two people” emphasizes the importance[用词准确,有难度]of smile in our daily life.And I could hardly express how much I agree with it[宾语从句使用到位].

   Smile does have magic power[强调方式得当,且用词地道]:it costs nothing but brings more than you can expect[语言娴熟].Last month,I was confined to[用词准确而有难度]the hospital with flu,feeling lonely and miserable[分词短语作伴随状语,显示了语言水平].Many friends came to see me with bunches of flowers[用词准确而有难度]and fresh fruits,but what impressed me most was[语言熟练而正确]their smiles.Their warm and encouraging smiles were like sunshine,injecting vigor into my heart[分词短语作状语]and I felt they were always around me,loving me and supporting me[分词短语作状语].

   Smile can also narrow the distance[准确而有难度]between strangers.When the terrible earthquake struck Wenchuan,[例证丰富而语言地道,厚积薄发]thousands of people got severely injured.I saw on TV the nurses treated the patients with smiles,and volunteers served with smiles,comforting and encouraging the survivors.Their smiles brightened up[用词灵活而鲜亮]the days for the unfortunate people.

   Such is the power of smile[语言地道].It can not only deepen the friendship but also convey the positive energy[准确而有难度]from people to people.Therefore,smile to people around,and believe that we can change the world into a better one.[结尾建议有力]

   ③We can doing every thing to people we know.We can talking everything funny or sadly to friends.But if we find new people in life.What can we do.What is the shortest distance between two people?The answer is smile.

   When people sadly with something,give he a smile important than everything,the smile like sunlight.It cut through the gloom of the battered things and can give he hope.Smile can through people's heart that if we can not talk something to people.A smile is the shortest distance two people that is truth.If yo want make some new friends,I feel sure smile with them first is very important.Smile can make you look kindly friendly and sunny.Obviously smile is the shortest distance between people to people.If we in different background and different place,I make sure smile to every people is true.Smile can make people friendly and can solve every hardly things.

   I think smile like hug,like shake hands are very important to people.It can make everything easy and make the world easy.So a smile is the shortest distance to people.

   通篇看来,这篇作文条理不清,思路紊乱,语言支离破碎,大部分句子均有错误,且多数为严重错误(如can doing,can talking,以及“But if we find new people in life.What can we do.”等标点符号和大小写使用的低级错误),只能得2分。

   3.写作高分策略

   通过上面对样卷的分析,我们可以总结出作文的五大高分策略:

   1)字迹清楚,段落明朗

   字体大小应该适中,平时可以专门练习一下英文书法,如手写印刷体或意大利斜体;最低要求是保证清楚及三个“一致”,即字体大小一致、倾斜方向一致、水平方向一致。段落多数为三段,少数可以写成四段,最好用传统的自然分段方式,即段首缩进式,每段开头空4~8个字母的格;如果采用每行都顶头写的方式,则段与段之间要空一行,使各个段落一目了然。

   2)要点完整,紧扣题目

   传统的考题一般是三点提纲对应着三个自然段,较新的考题第一段一般需描述图画或图表,或阐释格言,第二段根据题目要求一般为例证自己的观点,最后一段收束全文。要完成题目中的要求,同时体现出清晰的层次,确保阅卷人在短时间内看到自己写了规定的内容。

   3)首保正确,再求闪光

   首先保证每段的第一句是正确的。不必为了追求大词、长句或所谓的套句而出现语法或拼写错误。这一条是最核心的,因为在写作时间和篇幅都比较短的情况下,考生写出的内容几乎是一样的,这时最重要的判断标准就是语言的质量。首先要保证语法和拼写正确,哪怕用小词、短句也可以。有能力的话再追求闪光的词句。

   4)先总后分,连词用上

   英语段落通常采用开门见山、先总后分的结构,一般是先写主题句,后写扩展句。写作时通常可以将提纲直接翻译出来作为主题句。扩展句之间最好用上关联词,如表示列举、举例、递进、对比、因果等关系的词,因为英语特别重视形式上的衔接,而且这样可以给人以条理性、逻辑性强的感觉。

   5)语言简练,内容得当

   这一条不是很重要,但也会在一定程度上影响分数。有些考生背诵了一些经典的句型,为了凑字就全用上了,给人低层次的感觉。还有些考生会在作文中写上很多无关的话,如对阅卷人的问候语、过多的设问等等,徒增凑字之嫌,导致低分。另外,要敢于表达自己的思想,不要一味地为了保证语言正确而裹足不前,只说一些小学生的话。这样的作文倒是没有语言错误,但肯定也得不了高分。因此,平时要勤于思考,使思维变得更广、更深、更多样,因为有见地的文章内容同样会打动阅卷人。


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