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英语六级听力破题指导:短对话与长对话

所属教程:英语六级听力

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2017年06月15日

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  听力概况

  在四六级考 试中,听力部分从2006年6月起由过去20%的比例上升为35%,有消息称,国家四六级出题委员会即将在2012年左右全面推行计算机四六级考试。其 中,听力部分将到70%的内容。

  六级听力题目构成与比例

  小对话: 8% 选择题共8道对话,每题长约1分钟

  长对话: 7% 选择题共2段对话,每段长约3分钟

  听力短文: 10% 选择题 共3篇文章,每篇长约3分钟

  复合式听写:10% 听写填空 填8个单词和三句话,放音三遍,共计8分钟

  听力位于考试的卷二部分,共占全卷35%。07年六级考试改革后,听力考试的对话部分在以往单一短对话的基础上增加了长对话的内容。其 中短对话部分由原来的10题减至8题;长对话有两篇,每篇题量在3至4题一共7题;不过对话部分题目总数保持不变,还是15个。新增的长对话持续时间约6 分钟,说话者的语速约为150-170词/分钟。该部分共15题,每题计1分,共15分。总的来说,题目的总量增加了,做题时间增加了,本身对学生是否能 够长时间的集中听力注意力就增加了考验。

  关于六级短对话

  除了和四级相同的一些视听反向原则(即听到的单词和短语要慎选)和同义词替换原则(即准确答案经常是原文的同义词语的替换)之外,六级 的小对话在出题方向上出现过一些明显的特点,总结如下:

  教授要求严格:例如布置作业很多、考试不容易过,上课要求准时、讲座难度高等等;

  2002年6月 第9题:

  M: Erh-erh… Looks like I'm going to be a little late for class. I hope Pro. Clark doesn't start on time today.

  W: Are you kidding? You can set your watch by the time he starts his class.

  Q: What can be inferred about Pro. Clark?

  A) He wants his students to be on time for class.

  B) He doesn't allow his students to tell jokes in class.

  C) He is always punctual for his class.

  D) He rarely notices which students are late.

  解析:男生说:可能我得迟到一会儿了,我希望Clark教授今天没有准点开课。女生回答:开玩笑吧,他每次开始上课(时间都很准,以至 于)你都可以对你的表。因此答案选C.

  2003年1月 第6题

  W: Professor Smith, I really need the credits to graduate this summer.

  M: Here at this school the credits are earned, not given.

  Q: What do we learn from the conversation?

  A) The man thinks the woman can earn the credits.

  B) The woman is begging the man to let her pass the exam.

  C) The woman has to attend a summer course to graduate.

  D) The woman is going to graduate from summer school.

  解析:女生说:教授,我需要这些学分才能暑假顺利毕业。教授回答:这个学校的学分是挣来的而不是给的。因此答案选B.

  另外:作业总是很重的负担,需要了解的是,作业包括各种各样的assignment 、homework 以及reading list。

  2003年6月 第8题

  M: Mr. Smith, our history professor, announced we would be doing two papers and three exams this semester. I wonder how I'm going to pull through when two other courses have similar requirements.

  W: Well, can't you drop one course and pick it up next semester?

  Q: What does the woman suggest the man do?

  A) Do the assignments towards the end of the semester.

  B) Quit the history course and choose another one instead.

  C) Drop one course and do it next semester.

  D) Take courses with a lighter workload.

  解析:男生抱怨道我们的历史老师Smith宣称这个学期我们要搞定两份论文三次考试。可是别的课程也有类似的要求,我都不知道我该怎么 去应付了。女生建议道那你为什么不退一门课呢?下学期再选也不迟啊。因此答案选C。

  预订难以成功:房间、交通或演出的票、商品等都很难订到或买到。

  M: I wonder whether it would be possible to change this double room to two single rooms.

  W: Sorry, sir. All the single rooms are occupied. But if you like, I can check with Imperial Hotel to see if they have any.

  Q: What's the woman going to do for the man?

  A) Let him move to a room with two single beds.

  B) Check to see if there are any vacancies in her hotel.

  C) Try to help him find rooms in another hotel.

  D) Show him the way to Imperial Hotel.

  解析:中男生说:我不知道能不能把这个双人间换成两个单人间。女生回答:对不起先生,所有的单人间都订满了。如果你想要的话,我可以给 你查查帝国饭店看看它们有没有。因此答案选C。

  女生更爱学习、男生更爱娱乐:

  2000年1月 第1题

  W: It's a pity you missed the concert yesterday evening. It was wonderful.

  M: I didn't want to miss the football game. Well, I'm not a classical music fan anyway.

  Q: What do we learn from the conversation?

  A) The man was sorry to miss the football game.

  B) The man attended the concert, but didn't like it.

  C) The man was sorry that he didn't attend the concert.

  D) The man is more interested in football than in classical music.

  解析:中男生说:你错过了昨天晚上的音乐会真可惜。它很棒的。男生回答:我不想错过足球赛啊,况且我不是一个古典音乐迷。因此答案选 D。

  另外,交通工具容易迟到,邀约对方容易遭到拒绝(吃饭的邀请容易成功),事故中人不会死亡而是生还等 特色规律都可以在题目中找到大量的佐证。

  关于六级长对话

  单就长对话而言,长对话作为六级听力改革后的新题型体现了命题组对于考试改革的诉求——强调在实际环境中的语言运用能力。涉及到的对话 场景内容非常广泛,从校园生活到生活中的各种场景。学生可以通过抓住“信号词” 来判断具体场景。经常涉及到的场景有:旅游(飞机,机场,出行准备等),校园,工作面试,访谈等。

  例题:2008年12月第一篇长对话

  22.A. Organizing protests C. Acting as its spokesman.

  B. Recruiting members D. Saving endangered animals.

  23. A. Anti-animal-abuse demonstrations B. Anti-nuclear campaigns

  C. Surveying the Atlantic Ocean floor D. Removing industrial waste.

  24.A. By harassing them. C. By taking legal action.

  B. By appealing to the public D. By resorting to force.

  25. A. Doubtful B. Reserved C. Indifferent. D. Supportive

  听力原文:

  W: Right, well, in the studio this morning, for our interview spot is Peter Wilson(人名,重要). Peter works for Green Peace (特殊表达,文章主题词). So, Peter, welcome.

  M: Thanks a lot. It's good to be here.

  W: Great! Now, Peter, perhaps you can tell us something about Green Peace and your job there. (寒暄,为了迷惑考生,此处进入正题)

  M: Sure. Well, I'll start by telling you roughly what Green Peace is all about. I actually work in London for the Green Peace organization(人 物职业,22题考点1). We've been going for a few decades and we're a non-violent, non-political organization. We're involved in anti-nuclear activity, conservation and protection of animals and protection and support of our eco-system. I'm the action organizer and arrange any protests.(人 物职业重复,22题考点。视听基本一致原则。)

  W: Right! A pretty important role. Peter. What sort of protest would you organize?

  M: Well, recently we've been involved in anti-nuclear campaigns. (问答关系,23题考 点。视听一致原则。)I, personally arranged for the demonstration against radioactive waste dumping in the Atlantic Ocean. We've got a few small Green Peace boats that weharass(特殊词汇,首次出现,24题 考点2) the dumping ship with.

  W: Say? Hold on, Peter. I thought you said your organization was non-violent. What do you mean by "harass"? (重 复核心词,也是问题所在。问答关系。)

  M: Well, we circle round and round the ships and get in the way when they try to dump the drums of nuclear waste in the sea.(针 对问题harass的具体回答,24题 考点。) We talk to the men and try to change, you know, yell at them to stop. We generally make ourselves as much of a nuisance as possible.

  M: Well, people may think differently of your methods, but there's no doubt you're doing a great job.(转折词but+态 度判断词great,25题 考点4), keep it up and good luck(继续态度判断). And thanks for talking with us.

  W: Thanks for having me.

  Q22. What is the man's chief responsibility in the Green Peace organization?

  Q23. What has Green Peace been involved in recently?

  Q24. How does Green Peace try to stop people from dumping nuclear waste?

  Q25. What is the woman's attitude towards the Green Peace's campaigns?

  Keys: ABAD

  解析:做题的时候一定要和短文一样对题目的出题位置有明确的把握,位置感很重要。一般而言,对话时,开头的客套以及问候与结尾的道别结 束语很少出题,而对话中段往往才是重点。另外,本段长对话使用到了视听基本一致的原则。24题的考法是长对话中最典型的一种,就是针对动作行为进行发问, 考点在于考生需要听明白人物发出的动作是什么,原文的动词harass和选项的harass是一摸一样,属于最简单的考法,而且原文重复两次,因此考生对 此即便是不知道harass是什么意思也能选对。25题的考法是一贯的长对话结尾题,往往以态度判断和结论作为考察对象,此题选项均为态度词,很容易判 断,另外,注意到选项呈现“三负一正”的格局,因此答案是显然的。本段长对话的几个特色词汇也需要注意:harass指“骚扰”,绿色和平组织采取“和平 骚扰”的方式,影响那些倾倒核废料(dumping nuclear waste)的人们,而没有采取诉诸武力(resorting force)的方式。

  六级对话类题目的一般性原则

  1.提前浏览,有备而听

  考试时在听力考试录音开始之前要尽可能抽时间浏览所有选项,以便预测对话的主题和相关细节内容。我们的策略是:考生可以先迅速浏览前四 个短对话的选项,用以做题,而从第五个对话开始,每个短对话之间都有15秒左右的时间间隔,考生可利用这段时间来预读下一题的选项。当读完前四个短对话的 选项后,考生应在Directions结束前,迅速浏览第一个长对话的所有选项,尽可能找出相关线索。根据样卷录音,Section A的Directions大约持续1分20秒左右的时间,如果加上考场试音的时间则更长。这足可以让考生预读前四个短对话的选项和第一个长对话的所有选 项。

  2.分析选项,预测内容: 在分析选项的部分,希望考生能针对如下三个关键部分进行快速判断:

  人物关系(Relationship,邻居?夫妻?同学?师生?同事等,能够为后面做题判断人物身 份起到良好的铺垫)。

  动作行为 (动词和动词结构往往是最重要的考察对象之一)。

  态度词 (长对话结尾往往涉及态度判断和结论)

  3. 边听边选,不要走神:

  尽量在听的时候确定哪个选项能够最大程度的吻合,这是做短文听力的宗旨,同样适用于长对话。平时训练做到“边听边记”、强调语言输出的 强化训练为主,上了考场强调“边听边选”。最后听问题确定自己的正确答案,因为听力时间间隔很短,因此哪怕是猜的答案,一旦作出判断,就不要过多纠缠于这 一分。集中注意力到下一题当中。

  4. 常见技巧型破题法则:

  短对话:视听反向原则、同义替换原则、后句更加重要原则。校园场景是小对话的重点主题;

  长对话:视听基本一致原则、首句重点原则、转折关系原则。注意说话人的态度也很重要。


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